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Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

A dictionary of scientific bird names originating from the Indian region 

Aasheesh Pittie 


This paper is a dictionary of words (274) that have 
originated from the Indian region [Afghanistan, 
Baluchistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma (Myanmar), 
India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka] and have 
been used in ornithology for scientific bird names. An 
attempt has been made to either give the meaning of these 
words, or the reason for their use. Several are not in use 
today. Eponyms honouring people have been restricted 
to persons of native origin. 

Nomenclature has always fascinated me, for each 
name has a story behind it. So, when I received a copy of 
James A. Jobling's (1995) excellent Dictionary, I delved 
into its riches with great eagerness. What struck me was 
the number of names that have originated from the Indian 
region and found their way into ornithological 
nomenclature. Jobling deals with generic and specific 
names in his book. I have added the names in Synonymy 1 
(See Notes) and those given to races (subspecies), to 
this list, making it more comprehensive. 

Scientific names were (and are) coined using 
different types of criteria. Birds were named by their 
appearance; in honour of a person, whether an 
ornithologist or not (such a word being called an 
'Eponym'); after the place where a taxon was discovered 
(known as a Toponym'); based on the native name of a 
species; based on habitat, behaviour, food or, voice. 

In the early 19th Century, Greek and Latin were the 
classical languages. Authors of new taxa were expected 
to use them in scientific nomenclature. However, some 
ornithologists differed. They latinized words from local 
dialects and used them in scientific nomenclature. 
Ornithologists who used names of Indian origin 
extensively were: Brian Houghton Hodgson ( 1 800- 1 894), 
William Henry Sykes (1790-1872) and Walter Norman 
Koelz (1895-1989). But it was more a reflection of their 
interest in ethnic people and culture and their familiarity 
with vernacular languages, rather than a rebellion against 
the establishment that prompted them to use words that 
belonged to neither of the two European classical 
languages. In the case of Hodgson at least, it was a sign 
of his polymathic intellect. 

Hodgson seems to have been ridiculed by 
contemporaries about his use of local names in scientific 

nomenclature, "It is, I think, much to be regretted that Mr. 
Hodgson, who in this and other instances has shewn his 
talent in the formation of classically compounded words, 
should in general adopt unmeaning (to most readers) and 
cacophonous generic names from the vernacular dialect 
of Nepal," (Jerdon 1839; footnote, p. 90). 

Such remarks pressurised him to grudgingly 
propose acceptable, alternative names for at least some 
of his new taxa. 'Although I think the prevalent humour 
of the day, which cannot tolerate any other than Greek 
and Roman names of genera in Zoology, is, in good part, 
absurd and pedantic, yet as I am told that continued non- 
compliance therewith on my part will be considered by 
most persons as a sort of excuse for past and future 
appropriations of my discoveries in this branch of science, 
as described in your Journal, I have now the pleasure to 
transmit to you a series of classical substitutes for my 
previous local designations," (Hodgson 1841; p. 26). 
When Hodgson wrote this, the International Code of 
Zoological Nomenclature was not in place, so to say. It 
was only in 1 842 that Strickland proposed such a system. 
Since then, there has been a gradual acceptance and 
recognition of the validity of names that are not founded 
in Greek or Latin. 

Whatever might be the pros and cons of the use of 
non-classical languages in scientific ornithological 
nomenclature, the use of vernacular words and their 
subsequent latinisation has created a rich vocabulary 
embracing social, political and geographical aspects of 
the multi-cultural, multi-lingual Indian region. 

In the list below, names (bold-face) are listed 
alphabetically. Both genus and species follow that order. 
Jobling's (1995) explanations are given within quotations 
and are always the first to be given. If Jobling's 
explanations are supplemented with further observations, 
these are placed within brackets on the next line, after his 
explanation. Explanations without quotations are compiled 
from other sources. Below the bold-faced name(s), a single 
citation is given by way of example, to illustrate how the 
name is used. In reality a single name (e.g., andamanensis) 
may have been used by different authors in many different 
citations. Most of these citations (in the lines after the 
main words) are either quoted from Ripley ( 1 982) or B aker 
(1922-30). A glossary of terms used in the body of the 
work is provided at the end. 

Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 


abdulalii: Eponym after Humayun Abdulali (1914-2001), 
Indian ornithologist. "I dedicate this subspecies to the 
collector of this specimen, Mr. Humayun Abdulali, who has 
made such outstanding contributions to ornithological 
knowledge of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands," (Mees 

Accipiter virgatus abdulalii Mees, 1981 (Middle 

abuensis: Toponym after Mount Abu (Abu Road, Sirohi 
District), Rajasthan state, India. 

Dumetia albigularis abuensis Harington, 1915 (Mount 
Abu) [=Dumetia hyperythra abuensis Harington, 1915.]. 

Afghanica/afghanorum: Toponym after Afghanistan. 

Hirundo rustica afghanica Koelz, 1938 (Baghlan, 
Afghanistan). [= Hirundo rustica rustica Linnaeus, 1758.]. 

Temenuchus pagodarum afghanorum Koelz, 1939 (Tagan, 
Afghanistan) [= Sturnus pagodarum (Gmelin, 1789).] 

akool: "Sinhala (Sri Lankan) name kukkula for the moorhen 
Gallinula and watercock Gallicrex (cf. Malayalam kula, 

[This species is not reported from Sri Lanka. Henry (197 1) 
gives the Sinhala name "Wil-kukkula" for both Gallinula and 
Gallicrex, but Kotagama and Fernando ( 1994) give the following 
Sinhala names, "Kora" for Gallicrex and "Galinuwa" for 

Rallus Akool Sykes, 1833 (Dukhun) 
(Sykes, 1832)] "Dukhun" (=Deccan). 

=Amaurornis akool 

alius: Eponym after Humayun Abdulali (1914-2001), Indian 
ornithologist. "The name alius, which is Latin for 'other' 
(this being another Scops-owl from the Nicobar Islands), 
encapsulates the family name of Mr Humayun Abdulali, 
who first collected this species, and contributed a great 
deal to Indian ornithology, and in particular that of the 
Andaman and Nicobar Islands," (Rasmussen 1998). 

Otus alius Rasmussen, 1998 (Campbell Bay, Great Nicobar 
Island), Nicobar Scops-Owl. 

almorae: Toponym after Almora, town and district in 
the state of Uttaranchal, earlier in the state of Uttar Pradesh 
(the erstwhile United Provinces of pre-independent India). 

Sitta castanea almorae Kinnear & Whistler, 1930, (Valley 
of Ramganga between Almora and Pethora). 

Amandava/amandava: "Corrupted from Ahmadabad, a 
town of Gujerat, India, whence the first examples of the 
Red Munia A. amandava were brought." [Gujerat = 
Gujarat state, India.] "According to Professor Newton's 
Dictionary, p. 11 the name avadavat, with its variants 
amadavat, amidavad, etc. is a corruption of Ahmedabad 
the town in Guzerat (Gujarat) whence, more than 200 years 
ago, according to Fryer (New account of East India etc. 
London, 1698) (q.v., Further Reading), examples were 
brought to Surat," (Whistler and Kinnear 1933). Yule and 
Burnell (1986) state: "AVADAVAT" (p. 41), "Improperly 
for Amadavat. The name given to a certain pretty little 
cage-bird (Estrelda (sic) amandava, L. or 'Red Wax -Bill') 
found throughout India, but originally brought to Europe 
from Ahmadabad in Guzerat, of which the name is a 
corruption." Yule & Burnell (torn, cit.) quote at least 3 
sources that use this name for the Red Munia, of which 
Fryer's (1673: p. 116) reads, "From Amidavad, smallBirds, 
who, besides that they are spotted with white and Red no 
bigger than Measles, the principal Chorister beginning, 
the rest in Consort, Fifty in a Cage, make an admirable 

Amandava Blyth, 1836. 

Fringilla amandava Linnaeus, 1758 (India orientalis) 

[=Amandava amandava (Linnaeus, 1758).]. 

amher stiana : Toponym after Amherst District, lo wer B urma 
(Myanmar), which, incidentally, was named after Lord William 
Pitt Amherst (1773-1857), British Governor-General of India 
from 1823-1828. He won the First Burmese War of 1824 and 
was honoured as the Earl Amherst of Arakan in 1826. 

Nyctiornis amherstiana Royle, 1840 (Dehra Dun) 
[=Nyctyornis athertoni (Jardine & Selby, 1828).]. 

andamana: See andamanensis. 

Graucalus macei andamanus Neumann, 1915 (Andaman 
Islands) [=Coracina macei andamana (Neumann, 1915).]. 

Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

andamanensis: "After the Andaman Islands in the Bay of 
Bengal, Indian Ocean." 

Copsychus andamanensis Hume, 1874 (Andamans) 
[=Copsychus saularis andamanensis Hume, 1874.]. 

andamanica: see andamanensis. 

Aviceda leuphotes andamanica Abdulali & Grubh, 1970 
(Wrightmyo, South Andaman Island). 

andamanicus: see andamanensis. 

Caprimulgus andamanicus Anonymous = Hume, 1873 
(Jolly Boys Island, Andaman Islands) [=Caprimulgus 
macrurus andamanicus Hume, 1873.]. 

Zoological Society of London, 157.]. Probably a name 
from Hindu mythology, (cf. Assamese ay-jan, a bittern)." 

[A more likely origin could be from the Hindi word 
(originating from Sanskrit and of feminine gender), asha, 
which means hope, or rather, the hesitant resolve to 
attain/get what has not yet been attained/got. Asha is a 
popular female name among Hindus. Though why Sykes 
would use it is a mystery!] 

Ardea Asha Sykes, 1832 (Dukhun) [=Egretta gularis 
schistacea (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1832).]. 

asiae / asiatica / asiaticus: "Latin Asiaticus, Asiatic; in 
ornithology almost synonymous with Indian but 
erroneous in Zenaida." 

andamanus: see andamanensis. 
See andamana 

arakanensis: Toponym after the Arakan Hill Tract District 
in Burma (Myanmar). 

Muscicapa solitaris arakanensis Deignan, 1947 (Arakan) 
[=Ficedula monileger gularis (Blyth, 1847).]. 

Argala: Hindi and Bengali name Hargila (Ali and Ripley 
1987; Blyth 1852) for Leptoptilos dubius. 

Argala Hodgson, 1838 [=Leptoptilos Lesson, 1831]. 

Argala migratoria Hodgson, 1838 [=Leptoptilos dubius 
(Gmelin, 1789).]. 

argoondah: "Assamese (Indian) native name goondri for 
the Manipur Bush Quail Perdicula manipurensis (cf. 
Bengali gundri)r 

[Sykes (1833), gives the type locality as "Dukhun" i.e., 
Deccan. According to Ali and Ripley ( 1 987), the distribution 
of this species does not extend to northeast India. Its 
plumage could be confused with Perdicula asiatica, but is 
quite different from that of Perdicula manipurensis . 
Perdicula asiatica also does not extend to northeast India.] 
Coturnix Argoondah Sykes, 1833 (Dukhun) [=Perdicula 
argoondah argoondah (Sykes, 1833).]. 

asha: "No explanation [Sykes (1832), Proceedings of the 

[May have been used broadly or with a certain amount 
of vagueness when origin of a taxon was not certain, to 
denote either India or the Indies.] 

Francolinus asiae Bonaparte, 1856 (Asia, restricted to 
Gurgaon by Baker) [=Francolinus francolinus asiae 
Bonaparte, 1856.]. 

Perdix asiatica Latham, 1790 (Mahratta region, India) 
[=Perdicula asiatica asiatica (Latham, 1790).]. 

Caprimulgus asiaticus Latham, 1790 (India) 
[=Caprimulgus asiaticus asiaticus Latham, 1790 
(India=Bombay) (Ripley 1982). 

Zenaida asiatica (Linnaeus, 1758) is the White-winged 
Dove found in southwest America, Mexico and South 

Assamensis / assamensis / assamica / assamicus: "After 
the state of Assam, north-eastern India." 

Cinnyris Assamensis McClelland, 1839 (Assam) 
[=Aethopyga saturata assamensis (McClelland, 1839).]. 
Mirafra assamica Horsfield, 1840 (Assam). 

Cuculus poliocephalus assamicus Koelz, 1952 [=Cuculus 
poliocephalus poliocephalus Latham, 1790.]. 

avensis: Toponym after ' Ava' (the Ava Period, AD 1287- 
1752) the ancient name of Burma (Myanmar). 

Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

Palaeornis eupatria avensis Kloss, 1917 (Bhamo) 
[=Psittacula eupatria avensis (Kloss, 1917).]. 

bagheira: Hindi name Baghairi (Blyth 1852; p. 132). Blyth 
(1852) calls Latham's bird, "Baay-geyra Lark, Latham" (p. 


Emberiza bagheira Franklin, P.Z.S., 1830-31, p. 119, Oct. 25, 
1831; based on the Baag-geyra Lark of Latham. 
[=Calandrella brachydactyla dukhunensis (Sykes, 1832).]. 

bakkamoena: "Sinhala (Sri Lankan) name bakamuna for 
the White Barn Owl Tyto alba and the Brown Fish Owl 
Ketupa zeylonensis." 

Otus bakkamoena Pennant, 1769 (Ceylon) 
bakkamoena bakkamoena Pennant, 1769.]. 


balasiensis: "Named the Balasian Swift, Cyp. Balasiensis, 
by Gray (1829), in Griffith's Animal Kingdom, 7, p. 60. 
The original toponym is probably after the town and 
district of Balasore, Orissa, where the British made their 
first permanent settlement in the Bengal region. However, 
the name has since been corrected to batasiensis, as if 
from the Bengali (Indian) name bathasi for the Asian Palm 
Swift Cypsiurus." 

[The correct usage is balasiensis not batasiensis 
Medway (1976). This is not a toponym after Balasore, but 
is derived from the Bengali name Batassia, which "signifies 
a bird resembling the wind, and is bestowed on account 
of its swift flight". Corrections (emendations) by various 
authors to batasiensis notwithstanding, the first name of 
the bird, balasiensis is the correct one.] 

Cyp.iselus) Balasiensis i. E. Gray, 1829 (India) [=Cypsiurus 
balasiensis balasiensis J . E. Gray, 1829.]. 

baltistanicus: Toponym after Baltistan, a region in 
Pakistan-occupied Jammu and Kashmir, northwest India. 

Oriolus oriolus baltistanicus Koelz, 1939 (Dagoni, 
Baltistan) [=0. o. kundoo Sykes, 1832 (Dukhun).]. 

baya: Hindi name baya, for a weaver-bird (Ploceidae). 

Ploceus baya Blyth, 1844 (India) [=P. philippinus 
philippinus (Linnaeus, 1766); Philippines, errore = Sri 

Baza: "Hindi baaz, a hawk (applied, without qualification, 
to the female Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis)." 

[The word baaz is Arabic in origin.] 
Baza Hodgson, 1837 [=Aviceda Swainson, 1836.]. 

Baza Syama Hodgson, 1837 2 (Nepal) [= Aviceda leuphotes 
syama (Hodgson, 1837).]. 

Beema / beema: Toponym after Bhima River, Maharashtra, 
India. "This is a solitary bird in beds of rivers. . ." (Sykes 

Budytes Beema Sykes, 1832 (Dukhun) [=Motacillaflava 
beema (Sykes, 1832).]. 

bendi: Toponym after "Bendi i Turkestan Range" (Koelz 
1949) (= Band - i - Turkestan), Afghanistan. 

Carpodacus rhodochlamys bendi Koelz, 1949 (Burchao 
Pass, Bend i Turkestan Range, western Afghanistan south 
of Maimana) [= Carpodacus rhodochlamys grandis Blyth, 

bengalensis: "After the states of East (BanglaDesh) and 
West Bengal, India. Historically Bengal (native name 
Bangala) comprised the greater part of northern India." 

Otis bengalensis Gmelin, 1789 (Bengal) [=Eupodotis 
bengalensis bengalensis Gmelin, 1789.]. 

bengalus: "French name le Bengali given to the Red- 
cheeked Cordon-bleu Uraeginthus by Brisson (1760) in 
the mistaken belief that it came from Bengal (v. 

Uraeginthus bengalus bengalus (Linnaeus, 1766). 

Benghalense / benghalensis: "After Benghal, a variant 
spelling of Bengal (v. bengalensis)." 

Picus benghalensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Benghala) [Dinopium 
benghalense benghalense (Linnaeus, 1758).]. 

Corvus benghalensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Benghala) 
[=Coracias benghalensis benghalensis (Linnaeus, 1758).]. 

Besra / besra: Hindi Besra for male Accipiter virgatus 

Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

(Besra Sparrowhawk), from the Hindi-speaking belt of 
north India (Ali and Ripley 1987). The distribution of this 
race is across Sri Lanka, Western Ghats and parts of the 
Eastern Ghats. Hindi is not widely spoken in any of these 
areas. "Basra (diminutive of Baz, 'Goshawk'), and the 
male -Dharti ('a handful', or 'held in the hand'), Hind." 

Accipiter Besra Jerdon, 1839 (Soonda Jungles, South 
India) [=A. virgatus besra Jerdon, 1839 (Soonda Jungles, 
South India).]. 

bharovus: Nepali name Bada bharao for Hierococcyx 
sparverioides and Bihari name Bharao for Hierococcyx 
varius (Anon. 1998). Grimmett, et al. (2003), give the Nepali 
name Pahadi biyu kuhiyo to the former. 
Cuculus himalayanus ? vel bharovus Gray, Cat. Birds 
Nepal, p. 119, 1846, ex Hodgs., Zool. Misc., p. 85, nom. 
nud., as synonym. [=Cuculus poliocephalus 
poliocephalus Latham, 1790.]. 

Bhringa: "Bengali (Indian) native name bhringraj 
for the Greater Racquet-tailed Drongo Dicrurus 


[Hodgson's type was Bhringa Tectirostris Hodgson, 
1836 {=Dicrurus remifer (Temminck, 1823)}. Grimmett, et 
al. (2003), give the Nepali name Bhringraj chibe for 
Dicrurus remifer] . 

Bhringa Hodgson, 1836 [Dicruridae] . 

birmanus: Toponym after Burma [=Myanmar.]. 

Merops viridis birmanus Neumann, 1910 (Myingan, 
Irrawaddy River, Burma) [=M. orientalis birmanus 
Neumann, 1910; Myingan = Myingy an.]. 

biswasi: Eponym after Indian ornithologist, Biswamoy 
Biswas (1923-1994). "I am obligated to my friend Mr. B. 
Biswas for the substance of the following: ..." (Koelz 1953; 
p. 153). 

Dryonastes caerulatus biswasi Koelz, 1953 (Kohima, Naga 
Hills) [=Garrulax caerulatus UvingstoniRipley, 1952 (Mt 
Japvo, Naga Hills, Assam).]. 

Bottanensis / bottanensis: Toponym after Bhutan. 

Pica Bottanensis Delessert, 1840 (Butan) [=Pica pica 
bottanensis Delessert, 1840 (Bhutan).]. 

boulboul: "Persian name bulbul for the bulbul 
Pycnonotus or nightingale of the East." 
Lanius boulboulha.tha.rn, 1790 (India) [—Turdus boulboul 
(Latham, 1790); India=Darjeeling (Ripley 1982).]. 

Brahmapicus: After Brahma, "the first deity of the Hindu 

triad..." (Garrett 2000). 

Brahmapicus Malherbe, 1849 [=Dinopium Rafinesque, 1814]. 

brahmaputra: Toponym after the Brahmaputra River, 
northeast India. 

Garrulax striatus brahmaputra Hachisuka, 1953 (Dafla 
Hills) [=Garrulax striatus cranbrooki (Kinnear, 1932).]. 

brama: "French name Chouette brame given to the 
Spotted Owlet Athene by Temminck, refers to its Indian 
habitat (Brahma, the Hindu supreme spirit)." 

[In Hindu mythology the owl is a vahan (mode of 
transport) of Lakshmi, goddess of wealth.] 

Strix brama Temminck, 1821 (Pondichery and west coast 
of India) [=Athene brama brama (Temminck, 1821).]. 

Buchanga: Hindi name Bhujanga or Buchanga for 
drongos (Dicruridae). 

Buchanga Hodgson, 1836 [=Dicrurus Vieillot, 1816]. 

Bucia: From Nepali name Bukay chera (Ali and Ripley 
1987) for Nyctyornis athertoni. 

Bucia Hodgson, 1836 (Nepal) [=Nyctyornis Jardine & 
Selby, 1830]. 

Bucia Nipalensis Hodgson, 1836 (Nepal) [=Nyctyornis 
athertoni athertoni (Jardine & Selby, 1830).]. 

burmae: See burmannicus. 

Terpsiphone paradisi burmae (Salomonsen, 1933). 
burmana: see burmannicus. 

Baza lophotes burmanaW. L. Sclater, 1920 (Malewoon, 

Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

Patchan Estuary, Tenasserim) [Aviceda leuphotes syama 
(Hodgson, 1836).]. 

burmannicus: "After Burma (Myanmar), named for the 
indigenous Burman inhabitants; Latin — icus, belonging 

Sturnus burmannicus burmannicus (Jerdon, 1862) 

burra: Sindhi name Boro (Anon. 1998) for Lanius vittatus. 
At the time of its naming, J. E. Gray was with the wildlife 
art collections of Major-General Thomas Hardwicke (1755- 
1835), who was an inveterate collector of natural history 
drawings in India (Archer 1962). Hardwicke was involved 
in the second Rohilla War (1797-1803) in Afghanistan. It 
is possible that this word was taken from something 
written on the original drawings. 

Lanius burra Gray, 1834 [=Lanius meridionalis lahtora 
(Sykes, 1832).]. 

burzil: Toponym after Burzil, Burzil Pass, Jammu and 
Kashmir, India. 

Anthus hodgsoni burzil Koelz, 1939 (Burzil Pass, edge of 
the Deosai Plain, Kashmir) [=Anthus trivialis haringtoni 
Witherby, 1917.]. 

cacharensis / cachariensis: Toponym after Cachar district 
in the state of Assam, India. 

Microscelis viridescens cacharensis Deignan, 1948 
('Chutla Bil', Surma Valley and Hill Division, Cachar) 
[=Hypsipetes viridescens cacharensis (Deignan, 1948).]. 

Siphia cachariensis Madarasz, 1884 (Dhilkusha, Cachar) 
[=Cyornis poliogenys cachariensis (Madarasz, 1884).]. 

cafer: "Mod.(ern) L.(atin) Coffer, South African, of South 
Africa (Caffraria); from the terms Kaffir, Caffre, or Caffer 
applied to certain indigenous peoples of that country 
(Arabic kafir, an infidel). The toponym is applied 
erroneously in the cases of. ..Pycnonotus." 

Turdus cafer Linnaeus, 1766 (Cape of Good Hope = 
Pondicherry fide Stresemann, 1952, Ibis 94: 515, 520) 
[=Pycnonotus cafer cafer (Linnaeus, 1766).]. 

cambaiensis / cambayensis: Toponym after Cambay 
[=Khambat (Gulf of)], between the Kathiawar Peninsula 
and the Gujarat plains. 

Sylvia cambaiensis Latham, 1790 (Guzerat, India) 
[=Saxicoloides fulicata cambaiensis (Latham, 1790).]. 
Columba cambayensis Gmelin, 1789('Cambaya') [=Gulf 
of Khambat.]. 

Carvanaca: Hindi name Karwanak (Ali and Ripley 1987) 
for Esacus recurvirostris. 

Carvanaca Hodgson, 1837 (JASB V: 775) [=Esacus 
(Cuvier, 1829).]. 

Carvanaca grisea Hodgson, 1837 [=Esacus 
recurvirostris recurvirostris (Cuvier, 1829).]. 

caschmirensis / Cashmeriensis / cashmeriensis / 

Cashmirensis / cashmirensis: "After the princely state 
of Kashmir, now Jammu and Kashmir, India." 

Parus major caschmirensis Uaxtevt, 1905 (Gilgit). 

Chelidon Cashmeriensis Gould, 1858 (Kashmir) 
[=Delichon dasypus cashmeriensis (Gould, 1858).]. 

Sitta Cashmirensis Brooks, 1871 (Kashmir) [=Sitta 
cashmirensisW.E. Brooks, 1871.]. 

cathpharius: Hindi name Katphora (wood-breaker) for 
all woodpeckers. 

Picus (Dendrocopus) cathpharius Blyth, 1843 
[=Dendrocopos cathpharius cathpharius (Blyth, 

ceylonense: See ceylonensis. 

Dicaeum erythrorhynchus ceylonensis Babault, 1920 
(Boista, Ceylon) [=D. e. ceylonense Babault, 1920.]. 

ceylonensis: "After Ceylon (Sri Lanka)." 

Baza ceylonensis Legge, 1876 (Near Kandy, Ceylon) 
[=Aviceda jerdoni ceylonensis (Legge, 1876).]. 

ceylonicus: See ceylonensis. 


Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

Merops orientalis ceylonicus Whistler, 1944 (Kalawewa, 

Chacura: see chukor. 

Chacura pugnax Hodgson, 1836 [=Alectoris chukar 
chukar (J. E. Gray, 1830).]. 

chambanus: Toponym after Chamba town and district in 
the state of Himachal Pradesh, India. 
Lophophorus chambanus Marshall, 1884 (Chamba) 
[=Lophophorus impejanus (Latham, 1790).]. 

Chaptia: "Nepalese name chaptia for the Bronzed Drongo 

Dicrurus aeneus." 

["Chaptya (i.e. 'flat-billed'), Nepal," (Blyth 1852; p. 
200). Grimmett, et al. (2003) give the Nepali name for this 
taxon as Sano chibey.]. 

Chaptia Hodgson, 1836. [=Dicruridae.]. Used as a 
subgeneric name by Wolters (1979). 

Chatarrhoea/chataraea: Bengali name Chatarrhea (Blyth 
1852); Dora chhatare, Chatarhia (Ali and Ripley 1987) 
for Turdoides earlei and T. striatus respectively. 

Chatarrhoea Blyth, 1855 (E. side of Bay of Bengal). 

Chatarrhoea gularis Blyth, 1855 (E. side of Bay of Bengal) 
[=Turdoides gularis (Blyth, 1855).]. 

Timalia chataraea Franklin, 1831 (North India) 
[=Turdoides caudatus (Dumont, 1823).]. 

cheela: "Hindi name cheel for a kite or hawk." 

Alauda Chendoola Franklin, 1831 (Between Calcutta 
and Benares) [=Galerida cristata chendoola (Franklin, 

cherrug: "Hindi name charg for the female Saker Falcon 
Falco (the tiercel, sakret or male being known as chargela)." 

Falco cherrug J. E. Gray, 1834 (India). 

Chibia: "Nepalese name chibey for the Hair-crested 
Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus." 

[Grimmett, et al. (2003) use Chibey as the generic 
vernacular name for drongos and Keshraj chibey for D. 
C/i/fc/a Hodgson, 1836 [=Dicrurus Vieillot, 1816.]. 

chicquera: "French name Le Chicquera given to the 
Red-headed Falcon Falco by Levaillant (1799) (Hindi 
names shikra or shikara for a hawk or hunter)." 

Falco chicquera Daudin, 1800 (Bengal) [=F c. chicquera 
Daudin, 1800.]. 

chukar: "Onomatopoeic Hindi name chukor for the 
Chukar Partridge Alectoris." 

[The call described Ali and Ripley (1987) is not 
onomatopoeic, though that by Roberts (1991) is.] 

Perdix Chukar}. E. Gray, 1830 (India) [=Alectoris chukar 
chukar (J. E.Gray, 1830).]. 

Cochoa: "Nepalese name cocho for the Purple Cochoa 

C. purpurea." 

[Grimmett, et al. (2003) give the Nepali name Kachowa.]. 

Falco Cheela Latham, 1790 (India) [=Spilornis cheela 
cheela (Latham, 1790); ("India=Lucknow", vide Ripley 

Cheet: "The cry of the bird is cheet, cheet, cheet, uttered 
simultaneously by flocks in flight," (Sykes 1832). 

Lonchura Cheet Sykes, 1832 (Dukhun) [=Lonchura 
malabarica malabarica Linnaeus, 1758.]. 

Chendoola / chendoola: Hindi chandul for all crested larks 
(Ali and Ripley 1987). 

Cochoa Hodgson, 1836. Cochoa purpurea Hodgson, 
1836 (Nepal). 

contra: "According to Albin (1738), Natural history of 
birds, Vol. 3, pi. 21, the Pied Mynah Sturnus was called 
contra by the natives of Bengal (cf. Assamese name kan 

[In contemporary Assamese, the Pied Myna is known 
as Gobor salika (= 'cow dung myna' or 'myna found near 
cow dung'). In the Kamrup District of Assam, it is called 
'Kan kuilla', (Singhapers.comm 2004). However, Higgins 

Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

(1926) records "Kan kurika' 
Nowgong District]. 

as the name used in 

Sturnus Contra Linnaeus, 1758 (India) [=Sturnus c. contra 
Linnaeus, 1758. "India, restricted to Chandernagor by 
Stresemann, 1952," (Ripley 1982).]. 

coromanda / coromandelianus / coromandelica / 

coromandelicus / coromandus: "After the Coromand or 

Coromandel coast north and south of Madras, India. 

Coromandel is a corruption of Cholamandalam, an old 

Dravidic kingdom of eastern India." 

Alcedo coromanda Latham, 1790 (Coromandel, 

India) [=Halcyon coromanda coromanda (Latham, 


Anas coromandelianus Gmelin, 1789 (Coromandel, India) 
[=Nettapus coromandelianus coromandelianus (Gmelin, 

Tetrao coromandelicus Gmelin, 1789 (Coromandel Coast) 
[=Coturnix coromandelica (Gmelin, 1789). 

Cutia: "Nepalese name khatya or khutya for the Nepal 
Cutia C. nipalensis." 

[Grimmett, et al. (2003) give the Nepali name Cutia.]. 

Cutia Hodgson, 1837. 

Cutia nipalensis Hodgson, 1837 (1836) (Nepal) [=Cutia 

nipalensis nipalensis Hodgson, 1837.]. 

daflaensis: Toponym after Dafla Hills, Assam, India. 

Actinodura daflaensis Godwin-Austen, 1875 (Dafla Hills, 
NE. Bengal) [=Actinodura waldeni daflaensis Godwin- 
Austen, 1875.]. 

Dahila: Bengali name Dayal (Blyth 1852; p. 166). Dhaiyal, 

Dhaiyar (Hindi, Bengali); Da(ya<i(Gujarati) (Ali and Ripley 


Dahila Hodgson, 1836 (Nepal) [=Copsychus Wagler, 


Dahila docilis Hodgson, 1836 (Nepal) [=Copsychus 
saularis saularis Linnaeus, 1758.1. 

Charadrius coromandelicus Gmelin, 1789 (Coromandel 
Coast) [=Cursorius coromandelicus (Gmelin, 1789). 

darjellensis: "After the town of Darjeeling, West Bengal, 

Strix coromanda Latham, 1790 (Coromandel Coast) 
[=Bubo coromandus coromandus (Latham, 1790).]. 

crishna: After dark Hindu God Krishna, the eighth 
incarnation of Vishnu (the second person in the Hindu 
trinity). The word is also used to describe a dark skin 
colour or for the colour black. Ali and Ripley (1987) give 
the Hindi names as "Krishnaraj, Kishenraj, Kesraj". 
"Krishna Crow Latham. . .Kesya, Nepal," (Blyth 1852; p. 

Edolius Crishna Gould, 1836 (Nepalia) [=Dicrurus 
hottentottus hottentottus (Linnaeus, 1766).]. 

Cuncuma: "Nepalese name kankam or kunkum for 
Pallas 's Fish Eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus." 

[Ali and Ripley (1987) give the Nepali name as 
"Kankam". Grimmett, et al., (2003) give the Nepali name 
Kankam cheel to Haliaeetus albicilla.]. 

Cuncuma Hodgson, 1837 [=Haliaeetus Savigny, 1809. 

Picus (Dendrocopus) darjellensis Blyth, 1845 (Darjeeling 
and Nepal) [=Dendrocopos d. darjellensis (Blyth, 1845).] 

dauma: "Bengali name dama for the Orange-headed 
Ground Thrush Zoothera citrina. According to Macleod 
(1954), p. 48, dama is the Bengali name for White's Thrush 
Zoothera, but no native names are recorded in Ali and 
Ripley (1973), Vol. 9, for the latter, and there is no 
explanation in Latham (1787) Gen. synop., Supp. 1, p. 145 
('It is called Cowal, from its note imitating that word') or 
Latham (1790) Index orn., Vol. 1, p. 362 (where called the 
'Dauma Thrush')." 

[Bengali name Dama for Zoothera citrina (Anon. 

Turdus Dauma Latham, 1790 (India) [=Zoothera dauma 
dauma (Latham, 1790). "India=Kashmir" (Ripley 1982).]. 

dawae: Eponym after Noro Surja Dawa. 'Named in honor 
of the Noro Surja Dawa of Lahul, who has assisted greatly 
in the formation of these collections,' (Van Tyne & Koelz 
1936; p. 3). 


Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

Picus vittatus dawae Van Tyne & Koelz, 1936 (Bhadwar, 
Kangra District, Punjab, British India) [=Picus 
xanthopygaeus (Gray, 1963).]. 

dehrae: Toponym after Dehra Dun city and district in 
the state of Uttaranchal, India (earlier in Uttar Pradesh 

Sturnopastor capensis dehrae Baker, 1925 (Dehra Dun) 
[=Sturnus contra contra Linnaeus, 1758.]. 

deosai: Toponym after Deosai Plateau, between Baltistan 
and Kashmir. 

Eremophila alpestris deosai R. & A. Meinertzhagen, 
1926 (Deosai Plateau, between Baltistan and Kashmir) 
[=Eremophila alpestris longirostris (Moore, 1856).]. 

deva: "After Deva, a good spirit or god of Hindu 

Bombay Natural History Society and to many individuals 
engaged in scientific research," (Abdulali 1965). 

Apus melba dorabtatai Abdulali, 1965 (Ghoti, Nasik 
District, Maharashtra state) [=Tachymarptis melba 
dorabtatai (Abdulali, 1965) (?). 

dorjei: Eponym after Raja S. T. Dorje, Foreign Minister to 
Maharaja of Bhutan. 

Cinclus pallasi dorjei Kinnear, 1927 (Sakden, E. Bhutan). 

Ducula: "Nepalese name dukul for the Mountain Imperial 
Pigeon D. badia." 

[Grimmett, et al. (2003) give the Nepali name for this 
taxon as Rajkapot. However, they give Dhukur as the 
generic Nepali name for Streptopelia spp.]. 
Ducula Hodgson, 1836. Type, by monotypy, Ducula 
Insignis Hodgson, 1836 (Nepal) [=Ducula badia insignis 
Hodgson, 1836.]. 

Alauda deva Sykes, 1832 (Dukhun) [=Galerida deva 
(Sykes, 1832).]. 

dharmakumari: Eponym after R. S. Dharmakumarsinhji 
(1917-1986) (Khacherand Khacher 1986), ornithologist 
prince of Bhavnagar state, Gujarat, India. 

Pericrocotus peregrinus dharmakumari Koelz, 1950 
(Jamwala, Junagadh, Kathiawar) [=Pericrocotus 
cinnamomeus cinnamomeus (Linnaeus, 1766).]. 

dharmakumarsinhjii: See dharmakumari. "This bird is 
named after R. S. Dharmakumarsinhji of Bhavnagar, the 
author of Birds of Saurashtra and well known in 
ornithological circles in India. He sent the birds to the 
Bombay Natural History Society in two lots in 1953 but 
no correspondence other than the covering letter is 
now traceable and I do not know if they were ever carefully 
examined by anybody before," (Abdulali 1976). 

Alauda gulgula dharmakumarsinhjii Abdulali, 1976 
(Bhavnagar, Gujarat) [=Alauda gulgula inconspicua 
Severtzov, 1872 (Turkestan).]. 

Dukhunensis / dukhunensis: Toponym after the Deccan 
region of India. 

Alauda dukhunensis Sykes, 1832 (Dukhun) [=Calandrella 
brachydactyla dukhunensis (Sykes, 1832).]. 

Motacilla Dukhunensis Sykes, 1832 (Dukhun) 
[=Motacilla alba dukhunensis Sykes, 1832.]. 

farahensis: Toponym after Farah, Afghanistan. 

Molpastes leucotis farahensis Koelz, 1939 (Farah, Afgha- 
nistan) [=Pycnonotus leucogenys leucotis (Gould, 

fernandonis: Eponym after E. C. Fernando of the Colombo 
Museum. "It is named after Mr. E. C. Fernando of the 
Colombo Museum in acknowledgement of his excellent 
work in carrying out the field collection of the Ceylon 
Survey on behalf of the British Museum and the Colombo 
Museum," (Whistler 1939). 

Orthotomus sutorius fernandonis Whistler, 1939 BBOC 
60: 15 (Ohiya, Ceylon). 

dorabtatai: Eponym after Sir Dorabji Tata. "The name is a 
small token of my appreciation of the generous aid so 
often given by the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust, Bombay, to the 

finga: Bengali name Neel Finga for Ashy Drongo 
Dicrurus leucophaeus longicaudatus Hay, 1854 (Ali and 
Ripley 1987). 


Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

Lanius fingah Shaw, 1809 (Peninsular India) [=Dicrurus 
caerulescens caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758).]. 

Ganeesa / ganeesa: After the elephant-headed, human- 
bodied Hindu God Ganesh. 

gingalensis: "After the Gin Ganga, a river of southern 
Ceylon (Sri Lanka) (v. singalensis)." 

Buceros gingalensis Shaw, 1811 (Ceylon) [Ocyceros 
gingalensis (Shaw, 1811).]. 

Hypsipetes Ganeesa Sykes, 1832 (Ghauts, Dukhun) 
[=Hypsipetes leucocephalus ganeesa Sykes, 1832.]. 

gangetica / gangeticus: Toponym after River Ganges 
(Ganga) of north India. 

Suya gangetica Blyth, 1867 (Upper Ganges) [=Prinia 

sylvatica gangetica (Blyth, 1867).]. 

Otus bakkamoena gangeticus Ticehurst, 1922 (Fatehgarh, 


garhwalensis: Toponym after the Garhwal region of 
Himachal Pradesh (erstwhile United Provinces), India. 

Paradoxornis nipalensis garhwalensis Fleming & 
Traylor, 1964 (Kurumtoli, Garhwal, UP). 

garoense / garoensis: Toponym after the Garo Hills (East 
Garo Hills, South Garo Hills and West Garo Hills districts), 
Meghalaya, India. 

Glaucidium brodiei garoense Koelz, 1952 (Tura) 
[=Glaucidium brodiei brodiei (Burton, 1836).]. 

Pseudominla castaneiceps garoensis Koelz, 1951 (Tura 
Mountain, Garo Hills) [=Alcippe castaneceps castaneceps 
(Hodgson, 1837). 

garuda: "A mythical bird or vulture, half-man, half-bird, 
on which Vishnu (the second god of the Hindu triad) 
rides," (Dobwson 2000). Kannada: Garuda; Telugu: 
Garuda lawa; Malayalam: Garudan (Ali and Ripley 

gingica: "Erroneous toponym after the town of Gingi 
(Gingee), Coromandel (Tamil Nadu), India; the Collared 
Hill Partridge Arborophila is confined to the mountains 
of south-eastern China." 

Arborophila gingica (J. F. Gmelin, 1789). 

ginginianus: "After the town of Gingi (Gingee), Tamil 
Nadu, India." 

["The type specimen from Gingee (Tamil Nadu) and a 
bird from Madras (J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 23: 155) are 
believed to be escapees", Ripley (1982). Reported north 
of a line from Mumbai, Nagpur and northern Orissa.] 

Turdus ginginianus Latham, 1790 (Gingee) [= Acridotheres 
ginginianus (Latham, 1790).]. 

girensis: Toponym after Sasangir, Junagadh, Gujarat, India. 
Brachypternus benghalensis girensis Koelz, 1954 (Sasan, 
Junagadh) [=Dinopium benghalense dilutum (Blyth, 

girra: Hindi name Girja and Girri (Blyth 1852; p. 302) for 
Nettapus coromandelianus. 

Bernicla girra J. E. Gray, 1830 3 [=Nettapus 
coromandelianus coromandelianus (Gmelin, 1789).]. 

goalpariensis: Toponym after Goalpara town and district 
in the state of Assam, India. 

Certhia goalpariensis Royle, 1840 | 
seheriae (Tickell, 1833).]. 

-Aethopyga siparaja 

Haliaetus garuda Lesson, 1830 [=Haliastur Indus Indus 
(Boddaert, 1783).]. 

gilgit: Toponym after Gilgit district in the state of Jammu 
and Kashmir, India. 

goensis: Toponym after Goa state, India. 

Lobivanellus goensis I Parra goensis Gmelin (1789) = 
Tringa Indica Boddaert, 1783 (Goa) [=Vanellus indicus 
indicus (Boddaert, 1783).]. 

lanthocincla lineatum gilgit Hartert, 1909 (Gilgit) 
[=Garrulax lineatus gilgit (Hartert, 1909).]. 

goiavier: "No explanation [Scopoli (1786), Deliciae florae 
et faunae insubricae, fasc. 2, p. 96]; perhaps a corrup- 


Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

tion of the Tamil (Sri Lanka) name kuruvi used in 
combination for various small birds, including bulbuls 
and babblers." 

Pycnonotus goiavier goiavier (Scopoli, 1786). [Type 
specimen from Philippine Islands. Distributed in the far- 

gurial: Bengali name, Gurial, for Stork-billed Kingfisher 
Halcyon capensis (Ali and Ripley 1987). 

Halcyon 4 gurial Pearson, 1841 (Midnapore, Bengal, 
India) [=Halcyon capensis capensis (Linnaeus, 1766).]. 

guzurata / guzuratus: Toponym after Gujarat state, India. 

gorii: Toponym after Gori, Afghanistan. 

Gecinus gorii Hargitt, 1887 (Tn Afghania meridionali') 
[=Picus squamatus flavirostris (Menzbier, 1886).]. 

govinda: "Hindu mythology. Govinda, the cowfinder, 
another name for Krishna the dark one." 

["A name of Krishna, given to him by Indra after having 
preserved the cattle by raising the mountain Govardhana," 
(Garrett 2000). A large majority of people in the region 
around Pune (Maharashtra state, India) where Col. Sykes 
was based, worships Krishna]. 

Sylvia guzurata Latham, 1790 (Guzerat) [=Orthotomus 
sutorius guzuratus (Latham, 1790).]. 

hazarae: Toponym after Hazara, Pakistan. 
Caprimulgus indicus hazarae Whistler & Kinnear, 1935 
(Abbottabad, Hazara, Himalayas). 
Hemachalana/hemachalanus: Toponym after Himachal 
Pradesh state, India. 

B.(ubo) Hemachalana Hume, 1873 (Kulu, 12000 feet, 
northern Punjab = Kotgarh//<ie Vaurie, 1965) [=Bubo bubo 
hemachalanus Hume, 1873.]. 

Milvus Govinda Sykes, 1832 (Dukhun) [=Milvus migrans 
govinda Sykes, 1832.]. 

hemispila: Toponym after the Hemis monastry in Ladakh, 
Jammu and Kashmir, India. 

gulgula: "No explanation [Franklin (1831), Proceedings of 
the Zoological Society of London, I, 119]; probably refers 
to the fine song of the Small Skylark Alauda (Latin, gula, 
the throat), although gulgul is a name for the Indian Mynah 
Acridotheres tristis in Madhya Pradesh, India, and Langton 
(1920) records that gulgula in Punjabi means 'globular' ." 

[None of the taxa have a type locality from Madhya 
Pradesh, nor Punjab!] 

Alauda gulgula Franklin, 1831 (The Ganges between 
Calcutta and Benares) [=Alauda gulgula gulgula 
Franklin, 1831.]. 

Nucifraga hemispila Vigors, 1831 (Himalayan moun- 
tains) [=Nucifraga caryocatactes hemispila Vigors, 

Himalayana / himalayana / himalayanus / Himalayensis 

/ himalayensis: "After the Himalaya Mountains (Sanskrit 
'abode of snow'), the great mountain chain of central 

Certhia Himalayana Vigors, 1832 (Himalayan moun- 
tains) [=Certhia himalayana himalayana Vigors, 

gulmergi: Toponym after Gulmarg, Jammu and Kashmir, 

Hemichelidon sibirica gulmergi Baker, 1923 (Gulmerg, 
Kashmir) [=Muscicapa sibirica gulmergi (Baker, 1923).]. 

gurgaoni: Toponym after Gurgaon, Haryana, India. 

Fregilus himalayanus Gould, 1862 (Himalayan 
Mountains) [=Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax himalayanus 
(Gould, 1 862) (Himalayan Mountains = Kumaon, restricted 
by Meinertzhagen, 1927, Ibis: 372]. 

Gyps Himalayensis Hume, 1869 (Himalayas from Kabul 
to Bhutan) [=Gyps himalayensis Hume, 1869.]. 

Caprimulgus asiaticus gurgaoni Koelz, 1939 (Hatin, 
Gurgaon, Haryana) [=Caprimulgus asiaticus asiaticus 
Latham, 1790.]. 

hindustan/hindustanica/hindustanicus: Toponym after 
old name (Hindi), Hindustan ["the country of the Hindus," 
(Yule and Burnell 1986)] for India. 

Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

Pterocles exustus hindustan Meinertzhagen, 1923 
(Sambhar, Rajputana) [=Pterocles exustus erlangeri 
(Neumann, 1909).]. 

Cinnyris lotenia hindustanicus Whistler, 1944 (Kumta, 
North Kanara) [=Nectarinia lotenia hindustanica 
(Whistler, 1944).]. 

hokrae: Toponym after Hokra Jheel, Kashmir, India. 

Acrocephalus concinens hokrae Whistler, 1930 (Hokra 
jheel, Kashmir) [=Acrocephalus concinens haringtoni 
Witherby, 1920.]. 

homrai: Nepali name, homrai, for Buceros bicornis (Ali 
and Ripley 1987). Grimmett, et al. (2003) give the Nepali 
name Rajdhanesh to this taxon and the generic Dhanesh 

Buceros homrai Hodgson, 1832 (Nepal) 
bicornis homrai Hodgson, 1832.]. 


Huhua: After Nepali name Huhu, Huhu cheel (Ali and 
Ripley 1987) for Bubo nipalensis. "Huhua, and Huhu 
Chil, Nepal (H.) [=Hodgson]" (Blyth 1852; p. 34). 
Grimmett, et al. (2003) give the Nepali name Mahakaushik 
for this taxon. 

Huhua Hodgson, 1836 [=Bubo Dumeril, 1806.]. 

Hyder was the title given to the fearless warrior nephew 
of the Prophet, Hazrat Ali. 

Astur hyder Sykes, 1832 (Dukhun) [=Butastur teesa 
(Franklin, 1832)]. 

inda: "Latin Indus, Indian; an erroneous toponym in the 
case of Chloroceryle." 

Chloroceryle inda (Linnaeus, 1766), "Panama and tropical 
South America," (Howard and Moore 1984). 

Indica / indicus: "Latin Indicus, Indian; an erroneous 
toponym in the case of Urocolius." 
Noctua Indica Franklin, 1831 (Banks of the Ganges and 
in the mountain chain of upper Hindoostan, i.e. Uttar 
Pradesh) [=Athene brama indica (Franklin, 1831).]. 
Astur indicus Hodgson, 1836 (Nepal) [=Accipiter 
trivirgatus indicus (Hodgson, 1836).]. 

indiraji: Eponym after Smt Indira Gandhi (1917-1984), 
late politician and prime minister of India. "Indiraji is 
dedicated to the memory of our beloved friend and 
foremost member of the Delhi Birdwatching Society, the 
late Prime Minister of India, Smt. Indira Gandhi," (Ripley 
etal., 1991; p. 24). 

Spelaeornis troglodytoides indiraji Ripley, Saha & 
Beehler, 1991 (Arunachal Pradesh). 

Huhua pectoralis Jerdon, 1840 (Malabar) [=Bubo 
nipalensis nipalensis Hodgson, 1836.]. 

humayuni: Eponym after Humayun Abdulali (1914-2001), 
Indian ornithologist. "... in honour of Humayun Abdulali, 
an eminent worker in the ornithology of India," (Deignan 

Pycnonotus cafer humayuni Deignan, 1951 (Deesa). 

indoburmanicus: Toponym after the erstwhile area of 
Indo-Burma. Also a Biodiversity Hotspot, spanning the 
political boundaries of Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, 
Thailand, Myanmar (Burma), Bhutan, and part of eastern 
Nepal and northeastern India. 

P.[alaeornis] indoburmanicus Hume, 1878 (No locality; 
restricted to Sikkim by Kloss) [=Psittacula eupatria 
nipalensis (Hodgson, 1836).] 

hutum: Onomatopoeic? Nepali name Hucheel (Grimmett, 
et al. 2003) for Ketupa spp., and Malaha hucheel for K. 

Strix hutum Horsf. & Moore, l&54_[=Ketupa zeylonensis 
leschenault (Temminck, 1820).]. 

hyder: Persian / Urdu Hyder meaning brave-hearted. 

Indranee / indranee: No explanation given by author. In 
Hindu mythology, Indra is "the king of heaven; the king 
of the Devas (Gods)," and Indranee (Indrani), "the wife of 
Indra..." (Garrett 2000). 

Strix Indranee Sykes, 1832 (The Ghauts) [=Strix 
leptogrammica indranee Sykes, 1832 (The 
Ghauts=Lonauli, Western Ghats) (Ripley 1982).]. 

Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

indus: See Inda and indica. 

Falco Indus Boddaert, 1783 (Pondichery) [=Haliastur 
indus indus (Boddaert, 1783).]. 

jaffnense / jaffnensis: Toponym after Jaffna peninsula, 
Sri Lanka. 

Brachypternus benghalensis jaffnensis Whistler, 1944 
(Illuppaikkadavai, Ceylon) [=Dinopium benghalense 
jaffnense (Whistler, 1944).]. 

jugger: "Hindi name jaggar for the male or tiercel Laggar 
Falcon Falco (the femlae being known as laggar)." 

Falco jugger}. E. Gray, 1834 (India). 

kail: Toponym after Kail, Afghanistan. 

Phylloscopus occipitalis fazz'/ Koelz, 1939 [=Phylloscopus 
occipitalis (Blyth, 1845).]. 

kalaphutki: Hindi translation = 'black warbler.' Prinia 
socialis is dark grey on top. 

Sylvia kalaphutki Blyth, 1844; ex Buchanan MS., as 
synonym [=Prinia socialis socialis Sykes, 1832.]. 

kali: Toponym after Kali River, Nepal. 

Garrulax erythrocephalus kali Vaurie, 1953 (Lete, Kali 
River Valley, Baglung dist., west central Nepal). 

kanarae: Toponym after the Canara region (Kannada), 
west coast, India. 

Micropternus brachyurus kanarae Koelz, 1950 (Londa, 
Belgaum Dist., Bombay) [=Micropternus brachyurus 
jerdonii (Malherbe, 1849).]. 

kandiana: Toponym after Kandy, Sri Lanka. 

Merula kandiana Blyth, 1852, ex Kelaart MS (Moun- 
tains of Ceylon) [=Turdus merula kinnisii (Kelaart, 

kangrae: Toponym after Kangra town and district in the 
state of Himachal Pradesh, India. 

Phylloscopus pulcher kangrae Ticehurst, 1923 (Simla). 

Karenni / karenensis: Toponym after Karenni State, 
Burma (Myanmar). 

Alcippe poioicephala karenni Robinson & Kloss, 1922 

Aethopyga nipalensis karenensis Ticehurst, 1939 

kargasiensis: Toponym after Kargasi Pass, Afghanistan. 
Cinclus pallasii kargasiensis Koelz, 1939 (Kargasi Pass, 
Afghanistan) [=Cinclus pallasii tenuirostris Bonaparte, 

kashmirensis / kashmirica / kashmiriensis: Toponym 
after the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. 

Dumetoicola thoracica kashmirensis Sushkin, 1925 
(north-western Himalaya) [=Bradypterus thoracicus 
przevalskii (Sushkin, 1925).]. 

Melanocorypha maxima kashmirica Koelz, 1939 
(Kashmir, Rupshu, Hanle) [=Melanocorypha maxima 
holdereri Reichenow, 1911.]. 

Accipiter virgatus kashmiriensis Whistler & Kinnear, 
1936 (Murree). 

katchalensis: Toponym after Katchal Island, Nicobar 
Islands, India. 

Sturnia erythropygia katchalensis Richmond, 1902 
(Katchal, Nicobars) [=Sturnus erythropygius 
katchalensis (Richmond, 1902).]. 

kathiawarensis: Toponym after Kathiawar Peninsula, 
Gujarat state, India. 

Lanius schach kathiawarensis Koelz, 1950 (Jamwala, 
Junagadh, Kathiawar Peninsula, India) [=Lanius schach 
caniceps Blyth, 1846.]. 

kaurensis: Toponym after the Kauri-Kachin tract, to the 
east of Bhamo, and bordering on the south of Tapeng 
River, 5,000 ft, Kachin State, Burma [Myanmar]. 


Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

Garrulax caerulatus kaurensis (Rippon, 1901). 

khasiana / khasica / khasiensis / khasium: Toponym 
after Khasi Hills (East Khasi Hills district, West Khasi 
Hills district), Meghalaya, India. 

Actinodura khasiana Godwin- Austen, 1876 (Khasia 
Hills) [=Actinodura egertoni khasiana Godwin- Austen, 

Chrysophlegma flavinucha kumaonensis Koelz, 1950 
(Kathgodam, Naini Tal district, U. P.) [=Picus flavinucha 
kumaonensis (Koelz, 1950) (Kathgodam, Nainital district, 

Kundoo / kundoo: No explanation given by the author. 

Oriolus Kundoo Sykes, 1832 (Dukhun) [=Oriolus oriolus 
kundoo Sykes, 1832.]. 

Hirundo daurica khasica Koelz, 1954 (Boko, Assam) 
[=Hirundo striolata mayri Hall, 1953.]. 

Alcippe nipalensis khasiensis Koelz, 1954 (Cherrapunji, 
Khasia Hills) [=Alcippe nipalensis nipalensis (Hodgson, 

Trochalopteron phoeniceum khasium Koelz, 1952 
(Laitlyngkot, Khasi Hills) [=Liocichla phoenicea bakeri 
(Hartert, 1908).]. 

krishnakumarsinhji: Eponym after His Highness Raol 
Shri Krishnakumarsinhji (1919-1965), the 27* Maharaja 
Saheb of Bhavnagar and elder brother of Sri 
Dharmakumarsinhji (Vaurie and Dharmakumarsinhji 1954). 

Calandrella raytal krishnakumarsinhji Vaurie & 
Dharmakumarsinhji, 1954 (Bhavnagar, Saurashtra). 

krishnarajui: Eponym after K. S. R. Krishna Raju (7-2002), 
Indian ornithologist. "This new form is named to honour 
K. S. R. Krishna Raju of the Andhra Pradesh Natural 
History Society, for his efforts to promote the survey and 
conservation of the natural resources of the Eastern 
Ghats," (Ripley and Beehler 1985; p. 67). 

Malacocincla abbotti krishnarajui Ripley & Beehler, 
1985 (Pedevalasa, Chintapalli Teluk, Vizag District, Andhra 
Pradesh) (Teluk = Taluk). 

kumaiensis: See kumaonensis. 

Leiothrix lutea kumaiensis Whistler, 1943 (Dehra Dun, 
United Provinces). 

kumaonensis: Toponym for the Kumaon region, in the 
Himalaya of Uttaranchal state (erstwhile United 
Provinces), India. 

kutru: Common Oriya name, kutru, for Megalaima lineata. 

Megalaima lineata kutru Mukherjee, 1952 (Chahala, 
Simlipal Hills, Orissa) [=Megalaima lineata rana Ripley, 

kwaka: Onomatopoeic. Hindi name Waak or Kwaak 
(Anon. 1998) for Nycticorax nycticorax. 

Ardea kwaka S. G. Gmelin, Nov. Comm. Ac. Petrop., Vol. 
XV, p. 452, pi. xiv, 177 1 5 [=Nycticorax nycticorax 
nycticorax Linnaeus, 1758.]. 

ladacensis: Toponym after Ladakh district in Jammu and 
Kashmir state, India. 

Acanthis flavirostris ladacensis R. & A. Meinertzhagen, 
1926 (Leh) [=Acanthis flavirostris rufostrigata (Walton, 

lahtora: "Hindi name latora for a shrike Lanius." 

Collurio Lahtora Sykes, 1832 (Dukhun) [=Lanius 
excubitor lahtora (Sykes, 1832).]. 

lahulensis: Toponym after Lahul, Lahul and Spiti district 
in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India. 

Lanius tephronotus lahulensis Koelz, 1950 (Kolung, 
Lahul, Punjab, India). 

lanka / lankae / lankensis: Toponym after Sri Lanka. 

Micropternus brachyura lanka Kloss, 1918 (Ceylon) 
[=Micropternus brachyurus jerdonii (Malherbe, 1849).]. 

Lobivanellus indicus lankae Koelz, 1939 (Galgamuwa, 
Ceylon) [=Vanellus indicus lankae (Koelz, 1939).]. 

Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

Fulica atra lankensis Deraniyagala, 1959 (Horavapottana, 
North Central Province, Sri Lanka) [=Fulica atra atra 
Linnaeus, 1758.]. 

lepcharum: Eponym after Lepcha the aboriginal tribals 
of Sikkim, India. 

Maderaspatanus / maderaspatensis: "After the city and 

seaport of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India 

(Modern Latin Maderaspata). An erroneous toponym 

after Madras (v. madaraspatensis), was used by Linnaeus 

for a white-eye {Zosterops) when he meant to write 


Parus monticolus lepcharum R. & A. Meinertzhagen, 
1926 (Gangtok, Sikkim). 

Lerwa / lerwa: "Bhutea (Bhutan) name lerwa for the Snow 
Partridge L. lerwa." 

Lerwa Hodgson, 1837 6 . 

Perdix lerwa Hodgson, 1833 (Northern region of Nepal) 

[=Lerwa lerwa (Hodgson, 1833).]. 

lettia: After Nepali name Lattya kusyal (Ali and Ripley 
1987) for Otus bakkamoena lettia. 

Scops lettia Hodgson, 1836 (Nepal) [=Otus bakkamoena 
lettia (Hodgson, 1836).]. 

lhamarum: Tibetan word Lama for Buddhist monk. 
Buddhism is a predominant religion in Ladakh 
(Jammu and Kashmir, India), from where this taxon was 

Alauda arvensis lhamarum R. & A. Meinertzhagen, 1926 

londae: Toponym after Londa, Karnataka state, India. 

Chibia hottentotta londae Koelz, 1939 (Londa, Bombay 
Presidency) [=Dicrurus hottentottus hottentottus 
(Linnaeus, 1766). 

lucknowensis: Toponym after Lucknow city and district 
in Uttar Pradesh state, India. 

Saxicoloides fulicata lucknowensis Koelz, 1939 
(Lucknow, U. P.) [=Saxicoloides fulicata cambaiensis 
(Latham, 1790).]. 

[Madras = Chennai.]. 

Oriolus Maderaspatanus Franklin, 1831 (Ganges between 

Calcutta and Benares. . .) [=Oriolus 

xanthornus xanthornus (Linnaeus, 1758).]. 

Motacilla maderaspatensis Gmelin, 1789 (India=Madras). 

Zosterops maderaspatanus maderaspatanus (Linnaeus, 


mahendrae: Toponym after Mahendragiri Hills, Orissa, 

Prinia sylvatica mahendrae Koelz, 1939 (Mahendra Giri, 

mahrattarum: Toponym after the Mahratta (Maratha) 
country, Maharashtra state, India. This seems to be an 
erroneous toponym, as the type is from Sri Lanka. 

Parus major mahrattarum Hartert, 1905 (Ceylon). 

Mahrattensis / mahrattensis: "After the Mahratta 
country of India; the Mahrattas or Marathas are a martial 
race of central India." 

Caprimulgus Mahrattensis Sykes, 1832 (Mahrattas) 
[=Caprimulgus mahrattensis Sykes, 1832.]. 

Maina: Hindi name Maina for members of the Sturnidae. 

Maina Hodgson, 1836 [=Gracula Linnaeus, 1758.]. 

malabarica / malabaricum / malabaricus: "After the 
Malabar coast and district (Kerala), the first part of India 
known to Europeans." 

lushaiensis: Toponym after Lushai Hills, Mizoram state, 


Coracina javensis lushaiensis Koelz, 1954 (Sangau, 

Lushai Hills) [=Coracina macei nipalensis (Hodgson, 


Alauda malabarica Scopoli, 1786 (Malabar) [=Galerida 
malabarica (Scopoli, 1786).]. 

Dinopium javanense malabaricum Whistler & Kinnear, 
1934 (Manantoddy, Wynaad). 


Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

Turdus malabaricus Gmelin, 1789 (Malabar Coast) 
[=Sturnus malabaricus malabaricus (Gmelin, 1789).]. 

Malcoha: Sri Lankan name Mai koha (Ali and Ripley 1987) 
for Rhopodytes Cabanis & Heine, 1863 and, 
Phaenicophaeus Stephens, 1815 species and, Nepali name 
Mai kowwa (Grimmett, et al. 2003) for the latter taxon. 

Malcoha Schinz, 1821 [=Phaenicophaeus Stephens, 

Maldivarum/maldivus/maledivicus: "After the Maldive 
Islands (Divehi Raajje), Indian Ocean." 

Glareola (Pratincola) Maldivarum J.R. Forster, 1795 
(Open sea in the latitude of the Maldive Islands...) 
[=Glareola maldivarum J.R. Forster, 1795.]. 

Amaurornis phoenicurus maldivus Phillips & Sims, 1958 
(Hulule Island, North Male Atoll, Maldive archipelago) 
[=Amaurornis phoenicurus phoenicurus (Pennant, 

Corvus splendens maledivicus Reichenow, 1904 

manipurensis / munipurensis: Toponym after the state 
of Manipur, India. 

Certhia manipurensis Hume, 1881 (Eastern Hills, 
Manipur) [=Certhia discolor manipurensis Hume, 1881.]. 
Cisticola munipurensis Godwin-Austen, 1874 
(Manipur Valley) [=Cisticola juncidis cursitans (Franklin, 

manis: Mani is short for the mantra of Avalokiteshvara 
(the Buddha), "Om Mani Padme Hum". Koelz was a 
collector of oriental art and greatly interested in Tibetan 
culture. He does not give the etymology of this word. 

Homochlamys fortipes manis Koelz, 1954 (Mawphlang, 
Khasi Hills) [=Cettia fortipes fortipes (Hodgson, 1845).]. 

manyar: "Tamil (Sri Lankan) name manja for various 


[Weaver birds = Ploceidae.]. 

Ploceus manyar (Horsfield, 1821). 

marathae: Eponym after the Maratha race of Maharashtra 
state or, toponym after Maharashtra state, India. 

Otus bakkamoena marathae Ticehurst, 1922 (Raipur, 
Central Provinces). 

mecranensis: Toponym after the Mekran area in Pakistan. 

Francolinus pondicerianus mecranensis Zarudny & 
Harms, 1913 (Valley of the Rud-I-Sarbas River, Persian 

merguiensis: Toponym after Mergui Archipelago, Burma 

Collocalia merguiensis Hartert, 1892 (Mergui) 
[=Collocalia esculenta elachyptera Oberholser, 1906.]. 

Mesia: Nepali name Misiya for Leiothrix argentauris 
(Grimmett, etal. 2003). 

Mesia Hodgson, 1838 [=Leiothrix Swainson, 1832]. 
Mesia argentauris Hodgson, 1838 (Nepal) [=Leiothrix 
argentauris argentauris (Hodgson, 1838).]. 

midnicobaricus: Toponym after Nicobar Islands, India. 

Amaurornis phoenicurus midnicobaricus Abdulali, 1979 
(Nancowry Island, Central Nicobars). 

Minla: "Nepalese name minla for the Redtailed Minla 
M. ignotincta." 

Minla Hodgson, 1838. 

Minla ignotincta Hodgson, 1838 (Central and northern 
regions of the hills, Nepal). 

Mino: "Hindi name maina for starlings and mynahs." 

[This genus is not used any longer for any taxon within 
the political boundaries covered by this paper.]. 

Mino Lesson, 1827. 

Mino coronatus (Blyth, 1842) (Tenasserim) [=Ampeliceps 

coronatus Blyth, 1842.]. 

mithilensis: Toponym after the ancient Indian town of 
Mithila, coresponding with the region of Tirhut, 


Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

comprising approximately of the districts of Champaran, 
Saran, Darbhanga and Muzaffarpur in Bihar. "A city, 
the capital of Videha or North Bihar, which corresponds 
to the modern Tirhut and Puraniya, between the Gandaki 
and Kosi rivers... It was the country of King Janaka, 
and the name of his capital, Janaka-pura, still sur- 
vives in 'Janakpoor,' on the northern frontier," (Dowson 

Circaetus mithilensis Gray, 1846 [=Spilornis cheela 
cheela (Latham, 1790).]. 

mohun: Eponym after Nepali ruler, Mohun Shamsher Jang 
Bahadur Rana. "It gives me great pleasure to name this 
subspecies in honor of the Prime Minister-Ruler of Nepal 
who did so much to make our Expedition a success. His 
Highness Maharajah Mohun Shamsher Jang Bahadur 
Rana, G.C.I.E., G.B.E." (Ripley 1950; p. 103). 

Mulleripicus pulverulentus mohun Ripley, 1950 (Jamu 
Ghat, Bheri River, western Nepal). 

Munia: Hindi name Munia for members of the 


Munia Hodgson, 1836 [=Lonchura Sykes, 1832.]. 
M.(unia) Rubroniger Hodgson, 1836 [=Lonchura 
malacca rubronigra (Hodgson, 1836).]. 

Phasianus muthura Latham, 1 823 [ 
leucomelana melanota (Hutton, 1848).]. 


muttui: "Malayalam (Indian) native name muttupilla for 
the Brown-breasted Flycatcher Muscicapa." 

[Muttu is a common Tamil name for a person. Layard 
in 1854 in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History 
series 2, 13(74): 127, named Muscicapa muttui, "after my 
old and attached servant Muttu, to whose patient 
perseverance and hunting skill I owe so many of my best 
birds. This one he brought in one morning at Pt Pedro in 
the month of June..." (Kannan 1996).]. 

Butalis muttui Layard, 1854 (Pt Pedro, Ceylon) 
[=Muscicapa muttui muttui (Layard, 1854).]. 

Myitkyiensis: Toponym after Myitkyina town, capital of 
Kachin State in north Burma (Myanmar). 

Microscelis viridescens myitkyinensis Deignan, 1948 
[=Iole virescens myitkyinensis (Deignan, 1948).]. 

nagaensis: "After the Naga Hills, Kachin, Burma 

Sitta nagaensis Godwin- Austen, 1874 (Naga Hills, NE. 
Frontier, Bengal). 

murghi: Hindi name Murgi for Gallus gallus. 

Persian "murghi"Derived from the Persian Murgh for 'bird' 
commonly used in Urdu as Jangli Murghi for Gallus 

Gallus ferrugineus murghi Robinson & Kloss, 1920 
(Chirala, Gaya district, Bihar) [=Gallus gallus murghi 
Robinson & Kloss, 1920.]. 

namdapha: Toponym after Namdapha, Changlang district 
of Arunachal Pradesh state in India. 

Pomatorhinus ferruginosus namdapha Ripley, 1980 
(40-mile camp [Bhimraj camp], east of Miao, Tirap District, 
Arunachal Pradesh). 

narcondami: "After Narcondam Island, Andaman Islands, 
Bay of Bengal." 

mussooriensis: Toponym after Mussoorie town in 
Uttaranchal state, India. 

Aethopyga siparaja mussooriensis Baker, 1925 
(Mussoorie) [=Aethopyga siparaja seheriae (Tickell, 

muthura: Toponym after the city of Mathura, Uttar 
Pradesh, India. 

Rhyticeros narcondamiYiume,, 1873 (Narcondam Island). 7 

navarroi: Eponym after ornithologist Rev. Br. Antonio 
Navarro, S.J. (1903-1987). "Named in honour of Br. A. 
Navarro, S.J., of St. Xavier's High School, Bombay, who 
procured the specimens at Khandala, and who has in 
other ways helped the Society with ornithological and 
other material over the last 30 years," (Abdulali 1959; 
p. 335). 

Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

Dumetia hyperythra navarroi Abdulali, 1959 (Khandala, 
Western Ghats, Poona District, Bombay State) [=Dumetia 
hyperythra abuensis Harington, 1915 (Mount Abu).]. 

neilgherriensis: See nilghiriensis. 

O.(reocincla) neilgherriensis Blyth, 1847 (Neilgherries) 
[=Zoothera dauma neilgherriensis (Blyth, 1847).]. 

nepalensis / nepaulensis: See nipalensis. 

T.{ichodroma) nepalensis Bonaparte, 1850 (Central Asia) 
[=Tichodroma muraria nepalensis Bonaparte, 1850.]. 
Phasianus nepaulensis Griffith & Pidgeon, 1829 (Almorah, 
India) [=Phasianus melanocephalus (J. E. Gray, 1829).]. 

newarensis: "Newdr. name of the indigenous people of 
Nepal proper," (Hodgson 1836). 

Ulula newarnesis Hodgson, 1836 (Nepal) 
leptogrammica newarensis (Hodgson, 1836).]. 


nicobarensis / nicobarica / nicobaricus / nicobariensis: 

"After the Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal." 

Rallus striatus nicobarensis Abdulali, 1967 (1966) 
(Nancowri, central Nicobars) [=Gallirallus striatus 
obsurior (Hume, 1874).]. 

Aethopyga nicobarica Hume, 1873 (Kondul and Meroe 
Islands, Nicobar Group) [=Aethopyga siparaja 
nicobarica Hume, 1873.]. 

Ephialtes nicobaricus Hume, 1876 (Nicobars) [=Otus 
scops nicobaricus (Hume, 1876) (Nicobars=CamortaI.).]. 

Dissemurus paradiseus nicobariensis Baker, 1918 
(Kondel, Nicobars) [=Dicrurus paradiseus nicobariensis 
(Baker, 1918).]. 

nilghiriensis / nilgiriensis: "After the Nilghiri or Nilgiri 
Hills, Tamil Nadu, India." 

Niltava: "Nepalese name niltau for the Rufous-bellied 
Niltava iV. sundara." 

Niltava Hodgson, 1837. 

Niltava Sundara Hodgson, 1837 (Nepal) [=Niltava 

sundara sundara Hodgson, 1837.]. 

Ninox: "Synonymized genus Nisus, sparrowhawk; 
synonymized genus Noctua, owl (Latin noctua, an owl; 
nox, noctis, the night); of the Brown Hawk Owl N. 
scutulata, Hodgson (1837), The Madras Journal of 
Literature and Science 5, 23, wrote, 'The experienced 
Shikaree who brought me, recently, a fine male specimen 
of this bird, asked me, when he put it in my hand, whether 
it was a Baaz (hawk) or an Ulu (owl)?... It is an owl, 
undoubtedly, but the most accipitrine of owls...'" 
Ninox Hodgson, 1837. 

Strix Lugubris Tickell, 1833 (Dampara, Dholbhum, Bengal) 
[=Ninox scutulata lugubris (Tickell, 1833).]. 

Nipalensis / nipalensis: "After Nepal, widely written Nipal 
in former times (Nepalese ni pal, holy land)." 

Hirundo Nipalensis Hodgson, 1837 (1836) (Nepal) 
[=Hirundo daurica nipalensis Hodgson, 1837 (1836).]. 

Buceros nipalensis Hodgson, 1829 (Nepal) [=Aceros 
nipalensis (Hodgson, 1829).]. 

orissae: Toponym after Orissa state in India. 

Rhipidura albicollis orissae Ripley, 1955 (Toda, Bonai, 

pagodarum: "Portuguese pagode, a temple orpagodah; 
the Brahminy Mynah Sturnus is commonly found around 
temples and villages." 

[Etymology: '...perhaps from Tamil pagavadi, from 
Sanskrit bhagavati, goddess, from feminine of 
bhagavat.. . ' ( 
dictionary/ entries/28/p0012800.html).]. 

Anthus nilghiriensis Sharpe, 1885 (Hills of southern Turdus pagodarum Gmelin, 1789 (Malabar) [=Sturnus 
India=Nilgiri Hills). pagodarum (Gmelin, 1789).]. 

Saxicola caprata nilgiriensis Whistler, 1940 palniensis: Toponym after the Palni Hills, Western Ghats, 
(Ootacamund). Tamil Nadu state, India. 


Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

Prinia sylvatica palniensis Koelz, 1939 (Kodaikanal, Palni 
Hills) [=Prinia sylvatica sylvatica Jerdon, 1840).]. 

pandoo: "Marathi (Indian) native name pandu for the male 
Indian Blue Rock Thrush Monticola." 

Petrocincla Pandoo Sykes, 1832 (Ghauts, Dukhun) 
[=Monticola solitarius pandoo (Sykes, 1832).]. 

pandubia: Hindi Pandubi (submarine) for the Dabchick 
Tachybaptus ruficollis. 

Podiceps minor var. pandubia Hodgson, 1844 nom. nud. 
[=Tachybaptus ruficollis capensis (Salvadori, 1884).]. 

pangpui: Toponym after Mizo name Phawngpui for the 
Blue Mountains, Mizoram, India. Sangau is at the northern 
base of the mountain (Choudhury 2004). 

Mycerobas melanozanthus pangpui Koelz, 1954 (Sangau, 
Lushai Hills) [=Mycerobas melanozanthus Hodgson, 1836.]. 

patia: Nepali name Patia for Orthotomus sutorius (Anon. 

Orthotomus patia Hodgson, P.Z.S. Aug. 1845, p. 29 
(Nepal) [=Orthotomus sutorius patia Hodgson, 1845.]. 

patkaicus: Toponym after Patkai Mountains, upper 
Myanmar (Burma). 

Molpastes leucogenys picru Koelz, 1954 (Laghman, 
Afghanistan) [=Pycnonotus leucogenys leucogenys 
(Gray, 1835).]. 

Pitta / Pittidae: "Telegu (Malayan) name pitta, a pretty 
bauble or pet." 

[Family Pittidae — Pittas. "The word Pitta has come 
into ornithology, from the Telugu [(Indian) name] pitta, 
meaning a small bird, latinized by Vieillot in 1 8 1 6 (Analyse, 
p. 42) as the name of a genus, and since adopted by 
English ornithologists as the general name for a group 
of birds, called by the French 'Breves', and remarkable 
for their beauty. In ornithology the word is first found as 
part of the native name, Ponnunky pitta, of a bird, given 
in 1713 by Petiver, in the 'mantissa' to John Ray's (1628- 
1705) SYNOPSIS (p. 195), on the authority of one Edward 
Buckley of Fort St George, Madras city. This was the 
first attempt to catalogue the birds of any part of the 
British possessions in India. This bird is the Pitta 
bengalensis of modern ornithologists, and is said by Jerdon 
in Birds of India, volume 1 , 503, to bear the Telugu name of 
Pona-inki. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11 th edition, 1911).]. 

Pitta Vieillot, 1816. 

Corvus brachyurus Linnaeus, 1766 (Moluccas=Ceylon) 
[=Pitta brachyura brachyura (Linnaeus, 1766).]. 

pondiceriana / pondicerianus: "After the former French 
colony of Pondichery (Puduchcheri, Tamil Nadu), south- 
west of Madras, India." 

(Garrulax) patkaicus Reichenow, 1913 (Patkai- 
Mountains, Upper-Burma) [=Garrulax leucolophus 
patkaicus Reichenow, 1913.]. 

Muscicapa pondiceriana Gmelin, 1789 (Coromandel) 
[=Tephrodornis pondicerianus pondicerianus (Gmelin, 

peguensis: Toponym after Pegu, Myanmar (Burma). 

Ploceus manyar peguensis Baker, 1925 (Pegu). 

pentah: Telugu word Penta for cow dung (cow pat). 
Perhaps the taxon was found feeding occasionally on 
undigested grain in dung of cattle grazing on common 
grounds around villages. 

Coturnix pentah Sykes, 1832 (Dukhun) \=P erdicula 
asiatica (Latham, 1790).]. 

picru: Afghani name Picru for this Bulbul. "The subspecific 
epithet is a local vernacular name," (Koelz 1954; p. 11). 

Poonensis: Toponym after Poona (Pune) city and district 
in Maharashtra state, India. 

Muscicapa Poonensis Sykes, 1832 (Poona) [=Muscicapa 
dauuricaPaWas, 1811.]. 

Pucrasia: "Nepali name pokras for the Koklas Pheasant 
P. macrolopha." 

Pucrasia G. R. Gray, 1841. 

Satyra macrolopha Lesson, 1829 (Bengal, error = Almorah 
Hills, Kumaon) [=Pucrasia macrolopha macrolopha 
(Lesson, 1829).]. 


Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

punjaubi: Toponym after the state of Punjab, India (and 
in Pakistan). 

Perdicula asiatica punjaubi Whistler, 1939 (Ambala, 

rajputanae: Toponym after the erstwhile Rajputana region, 
now represented by Rajasthan state, India. 

reubeni: Eponym after David E. Reuben (1893). ". . .Mr David 
E. Reuben, I.C.S. (Retd.) who served on the Executive 
Committee of the Bombay Natural History Society from 1954 
to 1975 and who over many years has advised and assisted 
me with the drafting and editing of ornithological and other 
notes and papers," (Abdulali 1977). 
Oriolus xanthornus reubeni Abdulali, 1977 (Wrightmyo, 
South Andaman). 

Salpornis spilonotus rajputanae R. & A. Meinertzhagen, 
1926 (Sambhur). 

Rama / rama: "Hindu mythology. Rama, the incarnation 

rexpimenti: Eponym after Rex Pimento. "The bird is named 
after Rex Pimento, Field Assistant, at the Bombay Natural 
History Society, who has twice accompanied me to the 
Andaman and Nicobar Islands and worked assiduously 
in the field," (Abdulali 1979). 

Sylvia Rama Sykes, 1832 (Dukhun) [=Hippolais caligata 
rama (Sykes, 1832).]. 

Ninox affinis rexpimenti Abdulali, 1979 (Magar Nulla, 
Campbell Bay, Andamans). 

rana: Eponym after ' . . . the Rana family, the family of the 
Prime Ministers of Nepal, who have made and shaped the 
destiny of that country for over one hundred years,' 
(Ripley 1950). 

Megalaima zeylanica rana Ripley, 1950 (Bajora, Dailekh 
Dist., west Nepal) [=Megalaima lineata rana Ripley, 

rangoonensis: Toponym after Rangoon city (Yangon), 
Burma (Myanmar). 

Edolius rangoonensis Gould, 1836 [=Dicrurus paradiseus 
rangoonensis (Gould, 1836).]. 

rincheni: Tibetan term for 'jewel' or 'precious'. Etymology 
not given by Koelz, but another example of his deep 
interest in Tibetan culture (see manis). 

Bambusicolafytchii rincheni Koelz, 1954 (Sangau, Lushai 
Hills) [=Bambusicolafytchii hopkinsoni Godwin- Austen, 

religiosa: "Latin religiosus, religious, sacred; a misnomer, 
Linnaeus having confused the Hill Grackle or Mynah 
Gracula with the Common Mynah Acridotheres tristis 
which is held sacred by the Hindus." 

Gracula religiosa Linnaeus, 1758. 

Raya: Nepali name Rai-i. Cachari name Dao hangari raja 
(Anon. 1998), for Psarisomus dalhousiae. 
Raya Hodgson, 1839 (JASB VIII: 35) [=Psarisomus 
Swainson, 1837.]. 

Raya sericeogula Hodgson, 1839 [=Psarisomus 
dalhousiae dalhousiae (Jameson, 1835).]. 

raytal: "Hindi name retal for the Sand Lark 

[Hindi Rat for sand. Adweller of sandy areas.]. 

Alauda raytal 'Buchanon-Hamilton' = Blyth, 1844-45 
(Lucknow) [=Calandrella raytal raytal (Blyth, 1844-45).]. 

rupchandi: Eponym after Thakur Rup Chand, "... who has 
been my constant companion. . ." (Koelz 1954). 
Batrachostomus hodgsoni rupchandi Koelz, 1954 
(Karong, Manipur) [=Batrachostomus hodgsoni 
hodgsoni (G R. Gray, 1859).]. 

salimalii: Eponym after Indian ornithologist, Dr Salim Ali 


Perdicula argoondah salimalii Whistler, 1943. 

["Now Mr. Salim Ali has produced this series of bright 
brick-red specimens of the Rock Bush-Quail from 
Marikanive in the Chitaldrug District which are even 
brighter and redder than the red race of the other species. 
The discovery is made more interesting by the fact that 


Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

with his usual care Mr. Salim Ali preserved a sample of the 
bright brick-red soil on which the new race was found 
and with which it agrees perfectly," (Ali and Whistler 

Ploceus megarhynchus salimalii Abdulali, 1961 (Bhutan 

[" recognition of the interest Dr. Salim Ali has 
always shown in this elusive species, which interest really 
induced me to examine the cage birds and enquire into 
their plumages," (Abdulali 1961).]. 

Saularis / saularis: "Hindi name saulary for the Magpie 
Robin Copsychus. Earlier authors suggest that Linnaeus, 
thinking that Latham's 'Dial-bird' (Hindi dhaiyal, magpie 
robin) had something to do with a sun-dial, meant to 
name it Solaris (Latin Solaris, solar, of the sun), but by a 
slip of the pen wrote saularis ." 

[The Hindi name for this bird is dhayal. Not saulary.] 
Gracula Saularis Linnaeus, 1758 (Asia=Bengal) 
[=Copsychus saularis saularis (Linnaeus, 1758).]. 

salwinensis: Toponym after the Salwin River, Burma. 

Abrornis superciliaris salwinensis Baker, 1924 (Salween) 
[=Abroscopus superciliaris superciliaris (Blyth, 1859)]. 

saramatii: Toponym after Mount Saramati in Nagaland 
state, India. 

Parus rubidiventris saramatii Ripley, 1961 (Mount 
Saramati, Naga Hills). 

sardarpateli: Toponym after Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel 
( 1 875- 1950), Indian freedom fighter and politician. 

Ploceus philippinus sardarpateli Koelz, 1952 (Ratnapur, 
Bhabanagar [sic], Saurashtra) [Ploceus philippinus 
philippinus (Linnaeus, 1766).]. 

sarkari: Toponym after the Circars region, in Orissa state, 
India. "Coastal region north of the Coromandel coast of 
Andhra Pradesh comprising the districts of Srikakulam, 
Vizianagram, Vishakhapatnam, East Godavari, West 
Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam and Nellore and the 
southernmost coastal region of Orissa in Ganjam district. 
Divided into Northern Circars and Southern Circars. 
Northern Circars were ceded by the Nizam to the British 
in 1766," (Mathur 2003). 

Dendrocittaformosae sarkari Kinnear & Whistler, 1930. 

Sasia: "Nepali name sasya for the Russet Piculet S. 


[Sasiya (Grimmett, et al. 2003).]. 

Sasia Hodgson, 1837. 

Sasia ochracea Hodgson, 1837 (Nepal) [=Sasia ochracea 

ochracea Hodgson, 1837.]. 

saurashtrensis: Toponym after the Saurashtra region in 
Gujarat state, India. 

Chrysomma sinensis saurashtrensis Koelz, 1954 (Sasan, 
Saurashtra) [=Chrysomma sinense hypoleucum (Franklin, 

scindeanus / scindicum / scindicus: See sindianus. 

Picus scindeanus 'Gould MS.' = Horsfield & Moore, 1858 
(Shikarpore, Sind) [=Dendrocopos assimilis (Blyth, 

Pyctorhis altirostris scindicus Harington, 1915 (Sukkur, 
Sind) [=Chrysomma altirostre scindicum (Harington, 

Seheriae / seheriae: Toponym after Seheria near Kolkata, 
West Bengal, India. 

Nectarinia (sic) Seheriae T(ickell), 1833 (near Seheria in 
Borabhum) [=Aethopyga siparaja seheriae (Tickell, 

seistanicus: Toponym after Seistan, in southwest 

Porphyria poliocephalus seistanicus Zarudny & Harms, 
1911 (Seistan) [=Porphyrio porphyria seistanicus 
Zarudny & Harms, 191 1.]. 

shaheen: Persian name Shaheen for Falco peregrinus 
peregrinator Sundevall, 1837. "Shahin ('royal'), female; 
Koela ('charcoal'), male: H [=Hindi]," (Blyth 1852; p. 14). 

Falco shaheen Jerdon, 1839 (Travancore, India) [=Falco 
peregrinus peregrinator Sunde vail, 1837.]. 

Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

Shanensis / shanus: Toponym after the Shan States, 
Burma (Myanmar). 

Certhia discolor shanensis E. C. S. Baker, 1930. 
Garrulax erythrocephalus shanus de Schauensee, 1946 
(Kengtung) [=Garrulax erythrocephalus schistaceus 
Deignan, 1938. 

shekarii: Eponym after P. B . Shekar. "... in recognition of 
the hard work in the field and in the preparation of skins 
done by P. B. Shekar..." (Abdulali 1964). 
Pelargopsis capensis shekarii Abdulali, 1964 (Chiria 
Tapoo, South Andaman) [=Halcyon capensis osmastoni 
(Baker, 1934).]. 

Sibia: "Nepalese name sibya for the Black-capped Sibia 
Heterophasia capistrata." 

Sibia Hodgson, 1836 [=Actinodura Gould, 1836.]. 

[The Sanskrit word Simala or Simhala means 'dwelling 
of lions', Yule & Burnell (1986).]. 

Apus singalensis Madarasz, 1911 (Ceylon) [=Apus affinis 
singalensis Madarasz, 1911.]. 

sinlumensis: Toponym after Sinlum Hills, Burma (Myanmar). 
Urocichla sinlumensis Harington, 1908 (Sinlum, Bhamo 
Hills) [=Spelaeornis longicaudatus (F. Moore, 1854).]. 

sintaungensis: Toponym after Sintaung city, Shan State, 
Burma (Myanmar). 

Krmnochelidon sintaungensis E. C. S. Baker, 1933 
(Sitaung, S. Shan States) [=Ptyonoprogne concolor 
sintaungensis (E. C. S. Baker, 1933).]. 

Apus singalensis Madarasz, 1911 (Ceylon) | 
singalensis Madarasz, 1911.]. 

-Apus affinis 

sidhoutensis: Toponym after Sidhout [Siddavatam] town 
in Cuddapah district, Andhra Pradesh, India. 

Pericrocotus cinnamomeus sidhoutensis Koelz, 1939 
(Sidhout, Cuddapah, Madras) [=Pericrocotus 
cinnamomeus cinnamomeus Linnaeus, 1766.]. 

sikkimensis: Toponym after Sikkim, India. 

sipahi: "Hindi sipahi, a soldier, a sepoy; refers to scarlet 
uniforms of the native Indian infantry and the plumage of 
the Scarlet Finch Haematospiza." 

[Sipahi is a Persian word. It perhaps refers to the soldiers 
of the cavalry, "horse-soldier" Yule & Burnell (1986).]. 

C.(orythus) Sipahi Hodgson, 1836 (Nepal) 
[=Haematospiza sipahi (Hodgson, 1836).]. 

Grammatoptila striata sikkimensisTicehuvst, 1924 (Sikkim) 
[=Garrulax striatus sikkimensis (Ticehurst, 1924).]. 

Siphia: "Nepalese name siphya for the Orange-gorgetted 
Flycatcher Ficedula strophiata." 

simlae / simlaensis: "After the city of Simla, capital of 
Himachal Pradesh state, India, and, under the British Raj, 
the summer residence of the Viceroy." 
Picus chlorolophus simlae Meinertzhagen, 1924 (Dehra Dun). 
Siva strigula simlaensis Meinertzhagen, 1926 (Simla) 
[=Minla strigula simlaensis Meinertzhagen, 1926.]. 

sindiana / sindianus: "After the province of Sind, formerly 
in British India, now in Pakistan." 

Siphia Hodgson, 1837 [=Muscicapa Brisson, 1760.]. 

sirkee: Gujarati name Sirkeer I Lili Sirkeer for Phaeni- 
cophaeus leschenaultii (Anon. 1998). Onomatopoeic? 

Centropus sirkee J ', E. Gray, 1831 (No locality=Cawnpore) 
[=Phaenicophaeus leschenaultii sirkee (J. E. Gray, 1831).]. 

sirotensis: Toponym after Sirotai, Afghanistan. 

Mirqfra erythroptera sindianus Ticehurst, 1920 (Karachi, 
Sind) [=Mirafra erythroptera sindiana Ticehurst, 

Prunella strophiatus sirotensis Koelz, 1939 (Sirotai, 
Afghanistan) [=Prunella strophiata jerdoni (Brooks, 

singalensis: "Erroneous type locality after Sri Lanka 
(Ceylon); the natives of Sri Lanka are called Singhalese 
(Sanskrit Simala, Sri Lanka)." 

Siva: "No explanation [Hodgson (1837), India Revue, 2, 
88], but probably from Hindi siva, happy (whence Siva, 
the Hindu god of life and death)." 


Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

Siva Hodgson, 1838 [-Minla Hodgson, 1838.]. 

stupae: After the Buddhist Stupa at Sanchi, near Bhopal 
in Madhya Pradesh, India. 

Parus major stupae Koelz, 1939 (Sanchi, Bhopal). 

subhemalayana: See subhimachala. 

Cisticola subhemalayana Hodgson, 1844 nom. 
nud. (Nepal) [=Cisticola juncidis cursitans (Franklin, 

Subhimachala /subhimachalus: "Latin sub-, beneath, at 
the foot of; Hindi himachal, snow, snowy (i.e. the 
Himalayas); the Red-headed Rosefinch Propyrrhula was 
described from Nepal." 

Corythusl Subhimachalus Hodgson, 1836 (Nepal) 
[=Propyrrhula subhimachala (Hodgson, 1836).]. 

Sultanea/sultaneus: "Arabic sultan, a king or sultan." 

Parus sultaneus Hodgson, 1837 (central and northern 
regions of the Hills, Nepal) [=Melanochlora sultanea 
sultanea (Hodgson, 1837).]. 

Sundara/sundara: "Hindi sundar, beautiful." 

Niltava Sundara Hodgson, 1837 (Nepal) [=Niltava 
sundara sundara Hodgson, 1837.]. 

sunia: "Nepalese name sunya kusial for the Oriental 
Scops Owl Otus." 

Scops sunia Hodgson, 1836 (Nepal) [=Otus scops sunia 
(Hodgson, 1836).]. 

suratensis: Toponym after Surat city in Gujarat, India. 

Columba suratensis Gmelin, 1789 (Surat, Gulf of Cambay, 
India) [=Streptopelia chinensis suratensis (Gmelin, 

Suthora: "Nepalese name suthora for the Ashy-eared 
Parrotbill Paradoxornis nipalensis." 

Suthora Hodgson, 1838 8 [=Paradoxornis Gould, 1836.]. 

Suya: "Nepalese name suya for the Nepal Fulvetta Alcippe 

Suya Hodgson, 1836 [=Prinia Horsfield, 1821.]. 

Suya criniger Hodgson, 1836 (Nepal) [=Suya crinigera 

crinigeraHodgson, 1836.]. 

Syama/syama: After Hindi Syam, dark coloured. "Syama 
('black'), Nepal," (Blyth 1852; p. 17). 

Baza Syama Hodgson, 1836 (Lower region of Nepal) 
[=Aviceda leuphotes syama (Hodgson, 1836).]. 

takko: After Hindi name Takko (Ali and Ripley 1987) for 
Megalaurus palustris. 

Turdus takko Horsf. & Moore, 1854; ex Buch. -Hamilton 
MS [=Megalurus palustris toklao (Blyth, 1843).]. 

tanki: "No explanation (Blyth 1843), Journal of 'the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, 12, 180), except, 'Among Dr Buchanan 
Hamilton's drawings is that of a species named by him 
Turnix tanki' (cf. Lepcha (Indian) name tanki for the 
sparrowhawk Accipiter)." 

Turnix tanki Blyth, 1843 (No locality = Bengal) [=Turnix 
tanki tanki Blyth, 1843.]. 

taprobana / taprobanus: Toponym after ancient ( 1 6 th - 1 7 th 
century) name, 'Taprobane', for Sri Lanka (Aguiar 

Alcedo ispida var. taprobana Kleinschmidt, 1894 (Ceylon) 
[=Alcedo atthis taprobana Kleinschmidt, 1894.]. 

Clamator jacobinus taprobanus Hartert, 1915 
(Northwestern Ceylon) [=Clamator jacobinus jacobinus 
(Boddaert, 1783).]. 

tarayensis: After 'tarai' the swampy grassland habitat 
of the Himalayan foothills 

Ardea tarayensis Gray, 1846 [=Ardea purpurea 
manillensis Meyer, 1834]. 

teesa: "Hindi name tisa for the White-eyed Buzzard 


["Tisa, or Teesa (from the voice), Hind." (Blyth 1852; p. 



Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

Circus Teesa Franklin, 1832 (Farther India = Ganges- 
Nerbudda, apudBaker) [=Butastur teesa (Franklin, 1832).]. 

tehminae: Eponym after Tehmina (1902-1939), wife of 

Indian ornithologist Dr Salim Ali, who collected the 


Brachypternus benghalensis tehminae Whistler & 

Kinnear, 1934 (Rajampara, 1350 feet; Panthalam Hills, 

Travancore) [=Dinopium benghalense tehminae 

(Whistler & Kinnear, 1934).]. 

Tenthaca: Nepali name Tentha (Grimmet, et al. 2003) for 
Tephrodornis sp., woodshrikes. 

Tenthaca Hodgson, 1837 [=Tephrodornis Swainson, 

toklao: Onomatopoeic? See takko. 

Tardus toklao 'Buchanan-Hamilton' = Blyth, 1843 ('in the 
bazaar,' Calcutta) [=Megalurus palustris toklao (Blyth, 

Toria: Nepali name Thoria for Treron curvirostra 
nipalensis (Ali and Ripley 1987). Grimmett, et al. (2003) 
give the Nepali name Haleso for Treron spp. 

Toria Hodgson, 1836 [=Treron Vieillot, 1816]. 

Toria Nipalensis Hodgson, 1836 (Nepal) [=Treron 
curvirostra nipalensis (Hodgson, 1836).]. 

torra: Hindi name Turra Bagla (Blyth 1852; p. 279). 

Tenthaca p eh ica Hodgson, 1837 (Nepal) [=Tephrodornis 
virgatus pelvica (Hodgson, 1837).]. 

Ardea torra Franklin, 1830-31 (Central India) 
[=Casmerodius albus (Linnaeus, 1758).]. 

Tesia: "Nepalese name tisi for the Greybellied Ground 
Warbler T cyaniventer." 

[Tisiya (Grimmett, et al. 2003).]. 

Tesia Hodgson, 1837. 

Tesia castaneocoronata Hodgson, 1837 (Nepal). 

tranquebarica: Toponym after a tiny coastal fishing village, 
Tranquebar (Tarangambadi), in Tamil Nadu state, India. 

Columba tranquebarica Hermann, 1804 (Tranquebaria, 
India) [=Streptopelia tranquebarica tranquebarica 
(Hermann, 1804).]. 

tetrao: "L.(atin) tetrao, a gamebird, probably the Black 

Grouse Lyrurus (Gr.(eek) tetraon, a gamebird, perhaps 

the Pheasant Phasianus)." 

[Onomatopoeic "Titr or Tetur (root of Tetrao), H," (Blyth 


Tetrao indicus J. F. Gmelin, 1789 (Coromandel, India) 

[=Pterocles indicus (J. F Gmelin, 1789).]. 

travancoreensis: Toponym after the erstwhile state of 

Travancore (Kerala), India. 

Ceryle rudis travancoreensis Whistler & Kinnear, 1935 


trinkutensis: Toponym after Trinkut Island, Nicobar 
group, India. 

titar: Hindi Titar for francolin. 

Francolinus pondicerianus titar Koelz, 1954 
(Ramanujganj, Surguja) [=Francolinus pondicerianus 
interpositus Hartert, 1917.]. 

tiwarii: Eponym after "Dr K. K. Tiwari, Joint Director, 
Zoological Survey of India, without whose assistance the 
last trip would not have been possible," (Abdulali 1979). 

Macropygia rufipennis tiwarii Abdulali, 1979 (1978) 
(Campbell Bay, Great Nicobar) [=Macropygia rufipennis 
Blyth, 1846.]. 

Excalfactoria trinkutensis Richmond, 1902 (Trinkut 
Island, Nicobar group) [=Coturnix chinensis trinkutensis 
(Richmond, 1902).]. 

turensis: Toponym after Tura Mountain, Garo Hills. 
Alcippe nipalensis turensis Koelz, 1952 (Tura Mountain, 
Garo Hills) [=Alcippe nipalensis nipalensis (Hodgson, 

Turumtia: Hindi Turumti for the Red-headed Falcon Falco 
chicquera chicquera Daudin, 1800. 

Turumtia Blyth, 1863 [=Falco Linnaeus, 1758.]. 

tusalia: Nepali name Tusal for Macropygia unchall 
(Dewar 1987; Anon. 1998). Grimmett, et al. (2003), give the 
Nepali generic name Dhukur to this taxon. 

Columba tusalia 'Hodgson' = Blyth, 1843 (Darjeeling) 
[=Macropygia unchall tusalia (Blyth, 1843).]. 

vellorei: Toponym after Vellore town in North Arcot 
district of Tamil Nadu state, India. 

Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 


Anthus similis yamethiniB. P. Hall, 1957. 

Yuhina: "Nepalese name yuhin for the Stripe-throated 
Yuhina Y. gularis." 

[Grimmett, et al. (2003) give the Nepali name Jurechara 
for all Yuhina spp.]. 

Yuhina Hodgson, 1836. 

Perdicula asiatica vellorei Abdulali & Reuben, 1964 
(Vellore, North Arcot District, Tamil Nadu). 

Yuhina gularis Hodgson, 1836 (Nepal) [=Yuhina gularis 
gularis Hodgson, 1836.]. 

victoriae: Toponym after Mount Victoria, Chin Hills. 

Babax victoriae Rippon, 1905 (Mt Victoria, Chin Hills) 
[=Babax lanceolatus woodi Finn, 1902.]. 

zeylanica / Zeylanicus / zeylonense / zeylonensis / 
zeylonica / zeylonicum / zeylonus: "Modern Latin 
Zeylona, Ceylon (Sri Lanka). In the cases of Pycnonotus 
and Telophorus the toponyms are erroneous." 

Vindhiana/vindhiana: "After the Vindhya Hills, Mahratta 
States (Madhya Pradesh), India." 

Bucco Zeylanicus Gmelin, 1788 (Ceylon) [=Megalaima 
zeylanica zeylanica (Gmelin, 1788).]. 

Aquila Vindhiana Franklin, 1831 (Vindhya Hills, central 
India) [=Aquila vindhiana Franklin, 1831.]. 

Vivia: Nepali name Wiwi (Ali and Ripley 1987), Wee-Wee 
(Blyth 1852; p. 65). Grimmett, et al. (2003), give the Nepali 
name Sasia to this taxon. 
Vivia Hodgson, 1837 [=Picumnus Temminck, 1825]. 

Vivia Nipalensis Hodgson, 1837 (Nepal) [=Picumnus 
innominatus innominatus Burton, 1836.]. 

yamethini: Toponym after Yamethin town, Burma 

Piprisoma agile zeylonicum Whistler, 1944 
(Kumbalgamuwa, Ceylon) [=Dicaeum agile zeylonense 
(Whistler, 1944).]. 

Strix zeylonensis Gmelin, 1788 (Ceylon) [=Ketupa 
zeylonensis zeylonensis (Gmelin, 1788).]. 

Certhia zeylonica Linnaeus, 1766 (Ceylon) [=Nectarinia 
zeylonica zeylonica (Linnaeus, 1766).]. 

Amaurornis fuscus zeylonicus Baker, 1927 (Ceylon) 
[=Porzanafusca zeylonica (Baker, 1927).]. 


Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 


This is a list of words that may have originated from the noa: Etymology not given by the author. 

vernacular languages of the Indian region, but for which 

their authors have not given any etymology. I have made Chelidorhynx hypoxantha noa Koelz, 1939 (Naggar, Kulu) 

an attempt at divining the meaning of some. [=Rhipidura hypoxantha Blyth, 1843.]. 

awsuree: Marathi name Swaral (Anon. 1998) for oribata: Etymology not given by the author. 
Dendrocygna javanica ? 

Babax lanceolatus oribata Koelz, 1954 (Blue Mountain, Lushai 
Mareca awsuree Sykes, 1832 (Dukhun) [=Dendrocygna Hills) [=Babax lanceolatus woodi Finn, 1902.]. 
javanica (Horsfield, 1821).]. 

ravida: No explanation by the author. 
Bahila: No explanation by the author. 

Stachyris nigriceps ravida Koelz, 1954 (Sangau, Lushai Hills) 
Bahila Hodgson, 1838, Ind. Rev. 9 [=Leiothrix Swainson, 1832]. [=Stachyris nigriceps coltarti Harington, 1913.]. 

Bahila Calipyga Hodgson, 1838 (Nepal) [=Leiothrix lutea Seena: No explanation by the author. 
calipyga (Hodgson, 1838).]. 

Seena Blyth, 1852? [=Sterna Linnaeus, 1758.]. 
chamelum: No explanation by the author. ChamelumPhil., is a Seena aurantia}. E. Gray, 1831 [Blyth (1852), notes "bad" (p. 
genus of the Mdaceae (Ms family). 291) against this name]. [=Sterna aurantia J. E.Gray, 1831.]. 

Pellorneum ruficeps chamelum Deignan, 1947 (Gunjong, Sterna seena Sykes, 1832 (Dukhun) [=Sterna aurantia J. E. 
Cachar) [=P. r mandelliiBhnfovd, 1871 (Sikkim).]. Gray, 1831.]. 

janjohari: No explanation given by author. 

taigoor: No explanation by the author. 

Fringilla janjohari Blyth, 1844 [=Emberiza hortulana Hemipodius Taigoor Sykes, 1832 (Dukhun) [—Turnix 
Linnaeus, 1758).]. suscitator taigoor (Sykes, 1832).]. 

jewan: No explanation given by author. trisuliensis: After Hindi Trisul (trident). The Trisul is 

Hirundojewan Sykes, 1832 [=Hirundo rustica gutturalis the trident (a weapon) of Shiva, the third person in the 

Scopoli, 1786.]. Hindu holy trinity. 

ladas: No explanation given by author. 

Pterocles coronatus ladas Koelz, 1954 (Soneri Lake, 
Sind) 10 . 

Picus trisuliensis Lichtenstein 11 (Himalaya) [=Dendrocopos 
canicapillus (Blyth, 1845).]. 

tsipi: No explanation by the author. 

lingoo: No explanation given by author. 

Orthotomus lingoo Sykes, 1832 (Dukhun) [=Orthotomus 
sutorius guzuratus (Latham, 1790).]. 

Dicrurus macrocercus tsipi Koelz, 1954 (Palasbari, Assam) 
[=Dicrurus macrocercus albirictus (Hodgson, 1836).]. 

Urrua: No explanation by the author. Onomatopoeic? 

Meena/ meena: No explanation by the author. Meena is Urrua Hodgson, 1837 [=Bubo Dumeril, 1806]. 

the Sanskrit word for fish. Bubo ? cavearius Hodgson, 1836 [Urrua cavearius 

Columba Meena Sykes, 1833 (Dukhun) [=Streptopelia Hodgson, 1838] [=Bubo bubo bengalensis Franklin, 

orientalis meena (Sykes, 1833).]. 1831.]. 


Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 


1 "Two or more names belonging to the same taxon are called synonyms. When there are a number of synonyms in a 

name the selection of a proper name applicable to the taxon is done through Law of Priority, i.e., the oldest one 
is taken as the proper name. It is called the senior synonym while the rest are the junior synonyms and are placed 
as the synonyms below the accepted name of the taxon." (Kapoor 1998). 

2 Ripley (1982, p. 41) errs in giving the year as "1836" whereas on p. 40, for the same citation, he gives the year as 

"1837". The correct year is 1837. 

3 Blyth (1852) does not specify whether the author of this taxon was John Edward or George Robert Gray. However, 

Wheeler (1998, p. 351) credits it to the former, the author of Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Vol. I (1830-1832). 

4 Ripley (1982) errs in using Alcedo instead of Halcyon on p. 207 (#730). See FBI vii: 352 & Blyth 1852, p. 47. 

5 Baker, E. C. S. 1929. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. 2 nd ed. Vol. VIII, p. 565. The author, 

Samuel Georgi Gmelin (1744-1774), published in this journal, which was published from 1750-1776. 

6 Ripley (1982, p. 67) errs in dating "Lerwa Hodgson, 1827". The correct year is 1837. 

7 Dickinson (2003) uses Hume's original nomenclature (p. 300). 

8 Blyth (1852; p. 102) gives "1838". 

9 The dating of volume 2 of the Indian Review is problematic. Blyth (1852, p. 99) gives "1838, p. 88"; Baker (1922) gives 

"1838, p. 88"; Ali & Ripley (1987) give "1837, Ind. Rev. 2(2): 88". However, Dickinson (pers. comm. Email of 
23.ix.2004) confirms that the date is 1837. 

10 Although Ripley (1982) considers ladas junior to Pterocles coronatus atratus Hartert, 1902, Dickinson (2003) 

recognizes the taxon. 

11 Listed in Blyth (1852, p. 336). Dickinson (pers. comm., email of 31.viii.2004) has this to say: 

"The CBBM (Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum) says that the name trisuliensis was used by Lichtenstein 
as a MS name of specimens in Berlin (specimens of what CBBM called Iyngipicus pygmaeus) and also that the 
name was published by Bonaparte in 1854 in connection with Iyngipicus canicapillus . 

"Bonaparte, C. L. 1854. Quadrodei VolucriZigodattiliossiaPasseriapiediscansori.L'Afeneo/toWano 1 (8): 116-129." 

Buceros Vol. 9, No. 2 (2004) 

Abbreviations and glossary 

cf. compare (Latin confer) 

Eponym ", . . an eponym commemorates a real person or mythical or a fictional character,: (Jobling, 1995). 

et al. "and other things / and others" (Latin et alii). 

fide on the authority of, or with reference to publication, to a cited published statement (Latin). 

i.e. "that is" (Latin id est). 

ibid. "in the same place" (Latin ibidem). 

nom. nud. Naked name (Latin nomen nudum). 

q.v. "which see" (Latin quod vide). 

Toponym ".. .geographical epithets," (Jobling, 1995). 

vide "see" (Latin). 


Several people helped me with this paper. Some of them with photocopies of 'ancient' 
texts while others through discussion, suggestion, advice and constructive criticism. I 
would like to sincerely thank: Hem Sagar Baral, Anwaruddin Choudhury, Edward C. 
Dickinson, Zafar Futehally, Kumar Ghorpade, Steven Gregory, Lavkumar Khacher, 'Aunt' 
Mary, Robert B . Payne, Mary Peacock, Rachel Reuben, Sushmita Sharma, Lt Gen. Baljit 
Singh, Hilloljyoti Singha, and Siraj A. Taher. 

General References 

Apte, Vaman Shivram. 1997. The student's Sanskrit- 
English dictionary containing appendices on 
Sanskrit prosody and important literary and 
geographical names in the ancient history of India. 
2 nd ed., reprint. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers 
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Further reading 

Ball, V. 1871. Names of birds, etc., in four of the aboriginal 

languages of Western Bengal. J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal XL 

(Part II No II) (20 July): 103-107. 
Bourne, W. R. P. 1990. Ancient bird names. British Birds 83: 

Cadell, P. R. 1907. Vernacular names of some Indian ducks. J. 

Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. XVII (4): 1028-1029. 
Campbell, B. & Elizabeth Lack, (ed.) 1985. A dictionary of 

birds. Calton, Staffs.: Poyser. 
Fryer, John, M. D. 1698. A new account of East India and 

Persia; being nine years travels. 1672- 1681. 3 volumes. 
Gotch, A. F. 1979. Mammals — their Latin names explained. 

Poole: Blanford Press. 
Gotch, A. F 1981. Birds — their Latin names explained. Poole: 

Blanford Press. 
Higgins, J. C. 1921 . Manipuri names of certain birds. /. Bombay 

Nat. Hist. Soc. XXVIII (1): 288-290. 
Jeffrey, C. 1977. Biological nomenclature. London : Edward 

Latham, R. E. 1 965 . Revised medieval Latin word-list. Oxford 

University Press. Oxford. 
Law, Satya Churn. 1925. Local names of some birds of the 

Manbhum District. J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal New Series XX 

(6) (November): 247-250 (1924). 
Law, Satya Churn. 1933 Pahariya names of some birds of 

Darjeeling. /. Asiatic Soc. Bengal New Series XXVII (3) 

(June): 313-316 (1931). 
Lockwood, W.B. 1984. The Oxford book of British bird names. 

Oxford University Press. London. 
Macleod, R.D. 1954. Key to the names of British birds. Pitman. 

Matthews, W. H. 1 934. Local bird names in the Darjeeling District. 

J. Darjeeling Nat. Hist. Soc. IX (4): 156-162. 
Newton, A. & H. Gadow. 1896. A dictionary of birds. Black. 

Phillott, D. C. and GobinLal Banerjee. 1908. Hindustani-English 

vocabulary of Indian birds. /. Asiatic Soc. Bengal Series 2, 

IV: 55-79. 
Terres, John K. 1996. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of 

North American birds. Pp. i-xxv, 1-1109. Wings Books. 

[First published 1956]. New York. 
Thompson, D' A. W. 1895. A glossary of Greek birds. Oxford 

University Press. London. 






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